A suffix preceded by an Arabic number or numeric prefix such as tri-, indicating how many of each part a flower possesses; 5-merous would be a flower with 5 sepals, 5 petals, etc., while trimerous would have three of each part.
The uppermost layers of soils consisting of partly decomposed plant remains and relatively fresh leaves and other plant debris; the surface mineral layer, high in organic matter and dark in color; and the lighter colored layer where leaching of solutes and suspended materials occurs.
An acronym representing the name All-America Rose selections, Inc., an association of commercial rose growers that tests and approves new rose varieties for commercial use.
Facing away from the axis.
Shortened, as when one part is shorter than another.
Atypical or unusual; not normally occurring.
Spontaneous generation of life from nonliving material.
Nonliving, as opposed to biological.
Any process in which a chemical in the environment is altered by nonbiological mechanisms, e.g., by exposure to sunlight.
Imperfect development or nondevelopment of an organ.
Defective or barren. Describes especially but not exclusively reproductive structures.
1. Refers to the adaxial (upper/outer) surface of a leaf, petal, sepal or scale. 2. Refers to the part of a stem, bulb, tuber, branch, or inflorescence that is the greatest distance from the attachment, following the stem/branch; if a branch arches with a flower at the tip drooping nearly to the ground, the flower is said to be above the highest point of the branch.
To scrape off.
Suddenly narrowed or cut off.
To suck up or take up, e.g., plant roots absorb water.
An infestation with or a disease caused by mites.
Domatia which have adapted to provide shelter to beneficial mites.
To adapt to a new environment, or a change in the environment.
The physiological process by which an organism adapts to a new environment.
Any dry fruit that does not open by itself.
Lacking chlorophyll; appearing without green color.
Rain which has turned acidic due to the presence of sulfur or nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. Acid rain can harm and even kill plants and aquatic life.
Soil with a pH level below 7 is considered acidic; also called sour.
Covered or filled with kernels.
Shaped like a half moon.
Resembling a bunch of grapes.
Land measurement of 43,560 square feet, roughly the size of a football field.
Harsh and bitter in taste.
Describes leaves with two or more primary or strongly developed secondary veins running in convergent arches towards the apex. Arches not recurved at base. See also: brochidodromous, eucamptodromous, semicraspedodromous.
The movement of a chemical substance by the expenditure of energy through a gradient (as across a cell membrane) in concentration or electrical potential and opposite to the direction of normal diffusion.
As in actual nitrogen; calculating the amount of the mineral present, e.g., calculating a 25-pound bag of fertilizer containing 22 percent of nitrogen as the equation 25 pounds X .22 = 5.5 pounds of actual nitrogen.
Prickly; beset with prickles.
Shaped like a prickle.
Beset with diminutive prickles.
Terminating with a sharp or well defined angle.
Arranged in spirals as opposed to whorls.
Proficiency of an organism to make changes improving survivability and reproduction in its habitat.
1. The ways an organism becomes better fitted to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. 2. A genetically changing characteristic that raises an organism's ability to survive.
The genetic characteristics by which an organism is suited to its environment.
The genetically set range or flexibility of reactions of an organism enabling it to respond in different ways to differing conditions.
Material added to a substance, such as fertilizer, to better enable it to perform the desired function.
A phosphorylated nucleoside that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis especially to ADP. An energy-rich phosphorous compound that is important in the transfer of energy in organisms.
Joined, but not united.
Refers to an event in which heat is neither gained nor lost.
Next to each other, but without touching or overlapping.
A material other than water, aggregates, or cement that is used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar to control setting and early hardening, workability, or to provide additional cementing properties.
Pressed flat against another organ.
The attachment of molecules or ions to outer surfaces or interfaces.
A root that arises from a stem, rather than from the primary root.
Refers to the wind, or to soil which has been moved by wind.
To supply or impregnate with air.
A root structure that rises above ground, usually above water, to allow the plant to absorb air.
The processes by which air and other gases in a medium are exchanged or refreshed.
A map-like picture taken of the ground from high in the air, showing roads, fields, and other man-made objects as well as natural features such as rivers.
Living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen.
All life that grows in the presence of free oxygen.
Microorganisms which float in the air, as plankton floats in water.
An involuntary response of a living thing to a gas, such as a plant curving toward a more concentrated source of carbon dioxide.
An organism's growth determined by the presence of oxygen.
Appearing during the summer season. See also: aspection.
That relationship between organisms which shows they share a common origin; used occasionally to show the similarity among communities.
1. A second growth crop, also called a rowen. 2. The outcome, especially of a disaster, as in the aftermath of a forest fire.
Having a life cycle in which chromosome segregation and recombination does not take place.
1. The dried fruiting body of a fungus formerly used in medicine. 2. Any of a family (Agaricaceae) of fungi with the sporophore usually resembling an umbrella and with numerous gills on the underside of the cap.
Stuck together, as in pollen masses of orchids.
The gradual filling of depressions in the earth's surface by soil deposition, such as the deposition at a lake's bottom; or the opposite, the wearing away of mountain tops, reaching toward a level surface.
1. Clustered. In mosses, applied to two or more sporophytes from one perichaetium. 2. Composed of mineral crystals of one or more kinds or of rock fragments. 3. A material such as sand or gravel mixed with a binder, such as cement, to produce mortars and concrete. 4. A group of closely-related species.
Crowded into dense clusters or tufts, as in Scabiosa atropurpurea.
When said of a lake, refers to the enrichment of waters, rapid growth of aquatic plants, and sedimentation which accelerate the death of a lake.
Aggressive or defensive actions, such as fleeing or fighting, brought on by the interaction between individuals usually of the same species.
That portion of a jurisdiction that can be or is farmed.
The study of plant nutrition and crop production in relation to soil control.
Land management for the simultaneous production of crops and trees.
The study of soils.
The theory and practice of soil management and field crop production.
Flowers all year; semperflorus.
Processing air to recover minerals in suspension or solution.
Describes the cells at the basal angles of the leaf, commonly different from the cells of the main part of the leaf, being shorter and often nearly square, or inflated and hyaline, and often highly colored.
The proportion of incident radiation, usually light, that is reflected by a body such as a cloud.
The act of turning white; whitish.
A flower that lacks normal color; white.
Starchy and other nutritive material in a seed, stored as endosperm inside the embryo sac, or as perisperm in the surrounding nucellar cells; any deposit of nutritive material accompanying the embryo.
Rapid growth and death of aquatic plants, especially during hot weather in highly nutritious water.
The study of algae.
The constant of temperature required for the development of a certain stage in the life cycle of an organism. See also: temperature summation.
A soluble salt obtained from the ashes of plants and consisting largely of potassium or sodium carbonate, e.g., a hydroxide or carbonate of an alkali metal, having marked basic properties. 2. Alkali metal. 3. A soluble salt or a mixture of soluble salts present in some soils of arid regions in a quantity that is detrimental to agriculture.
The total amount of dissolved substances predisposed to maintain the normal alkalinity of a body of water or an organism's internal body fluids.
A land basin in which water evaporation produces high salt concentrations that may, or may not, support salt marsh vegetation.
Soil with a pH level above 7; also called sweet.
The inhibition of growth of one plant species by another due to the release of chemical substances.
A substance which induces allergic symptoms like rash, inflammation, etc.
Having the smell or taste of garlic.
Refers to a species occurring in two or more similar communities in the same region.
Reproducing by cross-fertilization.
Refers to any organism occurring at any depth of the ocean.
Describes something related to, or caused by, a river or stream, such as alluvial deposits.
Soil deposits at the mouth of a stream or river, characterized by little or no modification of the original transported material by soil-forming processes.
Sediments which were transported by a stream or river, then deposited when the stream flow lessened. See also: alluvion.
Calendar to which astronomical data and various statistics are added.
An upland pasture consisting of natural plants which are used for grazing animals at the height of summer.
Herbal medicines which can work a gradual change in the system.
An instrument for determining altitude.
Having a very narrow wing.
Honeycombed; having angular depressions separated by thin partitions.
A honeycombed condition.
Refers to organisms which live in sand.
Alteration or change, especially for the better, as when adding a soil amendment.
The state or interaction in which one organism is reduced while another is not influenced. See also: commensalism.
Refers to plants which produce catkins.
Applied to the special antheridia-bearing branches of Sphagnum.
An educational, nonprofit organization dedicated exclusively to the cultivation and enjoyment of roses.
One of the organic, nitrogen-containing units of which proteins are composed.
Capable of living on land or in the water.
Producing fruit above ground which then becomes buried, e.g., peanuts, Arachis hypogaea.
Having flowers of different colors appearing in different seasons.
A marsh plant with some underwater vegetative parts.
Native of both Old and New Worlds.
Refers to an organism or a part of the growth cycle that produces zygotes.
Sexual reproduction; the joining of parental characters.
Refers to an organism with two noses.
Refers to the ability of a substance to react either as an acid or a base.
An organism or organ with the ability to clasp or twine, like a tendril.
The process of enlarging or amplifying.
Revival of an organism after apparent death, like the resurrection plant, Anastatica.
An organism which can survive in the absence of oxygen.
Describes a process that occurs with little or no oxygen present.
The existence of life without oxygen.
An herbal medicine which can relieve pain.
Of similar function, but of different evolutionary descent. See also: homologous.
An animal lacking embryonic membranes or amnion.
The study of the structure of an organism and the relationship between its parts.
A large root serving mainly to hold a plant in place in the soil.
Frozen water that forms at the bottom of a stream.
A plant breeding type in which a species, to produce seeds, must have a male plant with flowers having only stamens and a bisexual plant with flowers having both stamens and pistils. See also: dioecious.
A plant that grows most successfully around humankind.
The graphic record of wind velocity made by an anemograph.
An automatic instrument for graphic recording of wind sp.ed.
Microorganisms transported by wind.
The reaction to wind experienced by a free-moving organism.
Movement or growth of cells or organisms in response to wind.
An instrument that precisely measures atmospheric pressure to allow calculation of altitude.
Having evident ridges.
See also: alar.
Having narrow partitions. See also: latiseptate.
Refers to a substance which contains no water, like anhydrous ammonia.
A standardized measure to understand the needs of different kinds of livestock in relation to forageresources. A mature cow of about 1000 pounds (455 kg.) is the standard unit, and the feed needed is equal to one horse, one mule, five sheep, five swine, five goats, or eight geese.
A measure of forage needed to maintain one animal unit for 30 days.
A negatively-charged ion, such as chlorine. See also: cation.
A prefix meaning unequal or dissimilar.
The presence of two kinds of leaves on one plant as in Selaginella and some cedars, Juniperus. See also: dimorphism.
A plant whose life cycle is of only one year's duration.
The amount of yield each year by an organism or group.
The routine occurrence of plants and animals in an area during each year, such as spring bulbs being replaced by annual flowering plants, and subsequently replaced by autumn perennial flowering plants.
The highs and lows from year to year in abundance or performance of organisms caused by differences in environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture.
In the form of a ring.
Made up of rings.
Condition resulting from an extreme lack of oxygen, usually resulting in permanent damage.
Greatly deficient in oxygen.
The depressive effect of one organism upon another, such as certain grasses like timothy hay on the production of alfalfa hay.
Inside of, or not extending quite to the margin.
In front and on the sides.
Herbal medicines that can destroy or expel intestinal worms.
Anther-bearing; containing anthers.
Similar to an anther.
The time of expansion of a flower.
A blue to purplish-red coloring agent, water soluble.
Refers to the influences of humankind in contrast to natural influences, such as the introduction of IPMpest controls.
Refers to plants which grow near humans and their dwellings, such as dooryard violet, Viola odorata.
Against, opposed to.
Refers to herbal or other medicines that can ease or neutralize swelling, heat, and pain.
Refers to herbal medicines that can reduce or relieve allergic reactions.
Refers to herbal medicines that can reduce sexual desire.
The reaction, often death or sterilization, produced in organisms by an antibiotic.
Substance that slows the growth or multiplication of, or kills, a living organism; usually referring to bacteria.
An air mass with high atmospheric pressure surrounded by lower pressure areas, in which the circulation of the air is clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.
Herbal or other medicines that can neutralize the effect or inhibit production of body histamines.
Refers to herbal or other medicines that can slow the growth or multiplication of microorganisms, or kill them.
A rose which has been in cultivation since at least before 1900. Often refers specifically to an Old Garden Rose.
Refers to herbal medicines that provide Vitamin C.
Refers to herbal medicines that can relieve cramping or spasms.
Refers to herbal medicines that can prevent or be effective in removing tumors.
Refers to herbal medicines that can prevent or ease coughing.
Refers to herbal or other medicines that can slow the growth or multiplication of viruses, or kill them.
Pointed forward and upward.
Having no petals.
The top or tip of a structure.
Small, often wingless insects that suck sap.
The deep zone of an ocean or lake receiving too little sunlight to permit photosynthesis.
Refers to herbal preparations that can stimulate sexual desire.
The deeper portion of a lake bottom that lacks plants, including the sublittoral zone and the profundal zone.
1. Borne at the tip of an organ, farthest from the point of attachment, e.g., a bud which terminates a stem. 2. Describes the cells composing the apex of the leaf. They are often broader and shorter than the cells of the middle of the leaf.
Having an apicule.
A prefix denoting away from or separate.
Developed without fertilization.
The response by an organism of turning away from the earth, e.g., plant stems growing upward.
A plant that reproduces by apomixis.
Describes a derived characteristic. See also: autoapomorphic, pleisiomorphic, synapomorphic.
See hypophysis, the more correct term according to Braithwaite.
Having the condition of apospory.
A structure attached to or arising from a larger structure.
Located close together and nearly touching.
With no wings.
1. The raising of fish or other aquatic animals for their commercial value. 2. Hydroponic horticulture.
A conduit for water, whether canal, pipe, tunnel or a combination of these or others.
The use of artificial reefs and other structures to increase the production of seafood in fresh or salt water.
A natural holding tank of porous rock or soil locked between impermeable layers in which water may travel long distances.
Communities of plants where the surface water is a necessary factor, as in wet meadows.
Land that may immediately be used for farming without clearing trees, draining, etc.
Of or resembling a tree.
1. Having many trees. 2. Tree-like.
Tree-like in appearance and size.
A plant that existed in prehistoric times.
The flask-shaped female reproductive organs on the prothallium in the higher cryptogamscorresponding to a pistil in the flowering plants and containing the egg which becomes the sporophyte. See also: antherozoid.
The ocean layers between 200 feet and 3300 feet (65 and 1050 m.)l; the upper part of the abyssal zone.
Describes plants that have very strong shapes and are used in landscapes for this reason.
Describes an extremely cold climate, particularly that of the polar regions.
1. Moderately curved. 2. In mosses, refers to a capsule bent in a curve like a bow.
A sand desert.
1. Describes a sandy soil. 2. Growing in sandy soil.
Refers to organisms which live where there is sandy subsoil.
Like clay, growing in clay, or clay-colored.
Xeric, extremely dry.
Having an aril.
Having a small awn.
1. The basic framework of an object or organism. 2. A protective covering or other kind of defense, e.g., thorns.
Having a spicy odor, at least when crushed.
A watercourse, gully, or channel carved by water, often dry.
Insect, crab, spider, centipede, or other animal from the phylum Arthropoda.
1. A structure or appearance in a tissue due to death or the use of a reagent, and not present during life. 2. A product of human workmanship found on archeological digs.
With no partitions or divisions.
1. The appearance of vegetation during one of the seasons of the year, e.g., the vernal aspect. 2. The direction toward which a slope is facing, e.g., the southern aspect.
The change in the appearance of vegetation and its visible attributes during the succession of seasons of the year, as budding in prevernal, flowers in vernal, green fruit in estival, ripe fruit in serotinal, and bare branches in hibernal.
With a rough surface.
Somewhat rough to the touch.
Refers to a surface with short, hard projections.
A temporary community in developmental stage.
The pairing of male and female organisms in a manner that involves more than chance, so that the mating of similar parents is encouraged.
An herbal preparation that shrinks and firms tissue, particularly the skin.
Lacking a style.
Having a different shape on each side of a central axis.
The maximum size possible to a population under present conditions, no matter how long reproduction is allowed to continue.
Reverting to a form found in ancient ancestors.
Any instrument for measuring evaporation like a porous sphere or open pan of water.
A circular coral island or islands surrounding a body of water in the ocean. See also: lagoon.
Very dark chestnut in color.
1. A wasting away from lack of nutrition or use. 2. Arrested development of a part or organ inconsequential to the normal development of a plant or animal.
Colored deep purple, almost black.
Used in taxonomy when an author has applied a wrong name, usually beginning with "#non," to contrast it to the true type with the correct author, e.g., Betula platyphylla auct. Non Sukachev, which is in fact a different plant, Betula mandschurica.
A T-shaped tool, like a large corkscrew, used for drilling holes in the soil.
Shaped like an ear.
Having the shape of an ear.
Small lobes at the basal angles of the leaf, usually consisting of cells differing in size, shape, or both from those of the main part of the leaf. Properly used only when there is an outward curve in the outline of the leaf at the base, but often used loosely to denote the basal angles of widely decurrent leaves.
Refers to morning, the crepuscular period, or dawn.
The study of the individual in relation to environmental conditions, or sometimes, members of a speciesstudied collectively in the same way.
1. The botanist who discovered and named the new taxon. 2. The name or initial(s) following the taxon name, designating that botanist.
1. Describes the original or earliest known inhabitants of a region. 2. Originating in the place where found; indigenous. 3. Originating from within a system, such as organic matter in a stream resulting from photosynthesis by aquatic plants. See also: allochthonous.
Where male parts can fertilize female parts of the same flower through self-fertilzation or hermaphroditism; inbreeding.
Refers to processes or activities that are spontaneous, arising from internal causes. See also: autonomous.
1. Autonomic. 2. Refers to plants, especially those with chlorophyll, that are capable of turning inorganic materials to organic ones for their nutrition or other use. See also: autotrophic, photosynthesis.
When an author names a new subspecies or variety, the species is given the same new rank, based on the original type of the species and duplicating the epithet, e.g., when Pinus nigra ssp. larico was designated, Pinus nigra ssp. nigra came into being.
1. Refers to organisms that are capable of processing inorganic materials into organic ones by using energy from outside the organism such as sunshine on chlorophyll. 2. Refers to a body of water that is limited in its supply of organic material to what it is capable of producing within its own borders.
Refers to the season between summer and winter that, in the northern hemisphere, includes the months of September, October, and December. Astronomically speaking, it is the period extending from the September equinox to the December solstice.
One of several hormones occurring in plants which regulates certain aspects of growth. They can be produced synthetically and are sometimes used commercially as herbicides or to promote flowering or other types of plant growth.
The portion of nutrient substances, such as nitrates in the soil, that can be utilized by plants at rates and amounts required for growth.
All the materials left at the base of a slope following an avalanche.
Moving air stirred up by an avalanche and often destructive over considerable distances.
Reduced health from deficiency of vitamins.
Tapering upward from the base to a slender or rigid point.
Dolabriform; describes three-dimensional shapes.
Belonging to, or found in, the axil.
Situated in an axil.
Berry-like; pulpy throughout.
A fire purposely set ahead of an advancing fire to destroy flammable materials, enabling workers to control the main fire.
Something, such as an herbal preparation, capable of destroying bacteria.
A virus which destroys bacteria.
Regions of eroded land on which most of the surface is covered with ridges, gullies, and deep channels, having sparse vegetation.
A blockage placed in the path of high-velocity water, like a pier on the apron of an overflow dam.
Residue of sugarcane after the juice has been extracted.
A term for an ideal condition in which the interrelationships of organisms to one another and their environment appear harmonious, like a climax forest. In reality, the balance is continually upset by natural events.
Refers to barnacles.
A condition where outer petals stick together and fail to open, often occurring in damp weather.
Any of various usually woody and/or arborescent grasses of the tropical or temperate regions belonging to the genera Bambusa, Arundinaria, Phyllostachys, Sasa, Dendrocalamus, etc., most having hard, hollow stems.
Shallow swamps in Paraguay.
1. A continually moving deposit of sand forming a ridge along the seashore or the coasts of large lakes. 2. A unit of atmospheric pressure equivalent to 29.53 inches (750.1 mm) of mercury at 32 degrees at latitude 45 degrees.
Short, stiff barbs.
Describes a plant that is prepared for transporting by removing all the soil around its roots.
The layer of cells that produces new bark.
A self-registering barometer.
Response of an organism in response to barometric stimulus.
Change of position of a plant or sedentary animal in response to a barometric stimulus.
A region where vegetation is absent or poorly developed.
1. Any feature or condition that restricts movement of organisms or prevents establishment of organisms which have migrated there. 2. A condition that prevents or significantly reduces crossbreeding of organisms.
A strip of land built up by the action of waves, currents and winds, and which protects inner areas.
1. Growing from the base of a stem; used in reference to leaves at the base of the stem. 2. One of the main canes of a rose bush, originating from the bud union. 3. Describes cells at the base or insertion of the leaf, often of different shapes and colors from those of the main part of the leaf.
1. The area of the cross section of a tree at a height of 4.5 feet above the ground, generally written as the total of the basal area of the trees in a forest in square feet per acre. 2. The surface of the soilactually covered by a plant, as compared to the full spread of the herbage, which in grassland ecologyoften measures at one inch above the ground.
The proximal portion of a structure; that part nearest the point of attachment.
A measure of the absorptive capacity of a soil for materials with exchangeable cations, a nonacid reaction. A soil with a high base exchange capacity will retain more plant nutrients and is less apt to leach than one with a low exchange capacity.
The lowest level to which a land surface can drop by action of water; the permanent base level is sea level.
Attached by the base.
Refers to organisms which have adapted for life in alkaline soil or other medium.
The deep part of the ocean where light does not penetrate sufficiently for normal plant growth.
Refers to deep parts of the ocean, but not including the ocean bottom.
A pressure-resistant underwater structure with a spherical chamber in which scientists can descend deep into the ocean.
Plastic strapping which can be used in a manner similar to snow fencing.
A creek or slow-moving stream.
The barrier beach pool is a shallow lagoon formed inland from the barrier beach. 2. A sand spit beach pool is a shallow lagoon, generally S-shaped, that is inland from a sand spit, most often on the protected side of a headland.
Ending in a prolonged tip.
A thermometer for a narrow range at very accurate readings, such as one graduated to 0.01 degrees for a range of 7 degrees.
Plants used in large numbers in usually temporary displays. Most often annuals, tender perennials, and bulbs not able or intended to naturalize and which are grown indoors or under glass before planting.
A humorous term for inconspicuous plants, which often require botanists to crawl on their bellies to find them.
Refers to the position of one portion of an organ or plant in relation to another portion; the part "below" is the nearest to the attachment. See also: above.
A long narrow area or strip of vegetation with characteristics which define it from adjoining areas.
The point of reference in elevation surveys from where surveyors start to furnish an accurate survey.
1. A narrow shelf, path, or ledge typically at the top or bottom of an escarpment or beside a road. 2. A mound or wall of earth.
Occurring twice a year. See also: biennial.
Having two auricles.
Having two bracteoles.
Having two spurs.
Having two callosities.
Having two keels.
Having two colors on the same structure, often said of petals.
Bulging outward on both sides, almost a sphere or orb.
Having two horns.
Having two teeth.
A plant with a life cycle that is completed in two years or seasons, with the second season usually devoted to flowering and fruiting.
Refers to a plant which flowers in both spring and autumn.
Having just two leaves.
Made up of two plates.
Growing in pairs.
Hardened cement paste.
Determination of relative strength of a substance by testing on an organism.
A test to detect and measure pollution in water by determining the quantity of oxygen already used up by oxidizable materials.
The generalization that in temperate North America, weather-related events, such as bloom time, can be determined to be similar as you move up or down a mountain 400 feet, or one degree of latitude, or 5 degrees of longitude. In the spring, each of these measurements are eastward or upward and are four days later; in autumn, they are westward or downward and are four days earlier.
The study of interrelationships between living things and the climate.
The study of communities including qualitative and quantitative analyses.
Numerical and mathematical treatment of population problems.
Relating to a system of farming that uses only organic materials.
The principle that plants or animals can originate only from other plants or animals. See also: spontaneous generation.
The chemical treatment of seeds to stimulate growth.
The rhythmic repetition of processes in organisms, like the need for sleep in mammals.
The ratio of the productivity of an organism or community of organisms to that of its supply of energy. A black bear would have a much higher efficiency hunting in the summer than in winter, so it is more efficient to hibernate during the winter months.
The state of natural control, self-regulation of the numbers of plants and animals in a community, brought about by interactions within and between plants and animals and the effects of environmentsuch as weather. For example, as the numbers of white-footed mice, Paramyscus, rise, grass seeds, Graminae, decrease and the numbers of foxes, Vulpes, increase. See also: life cycle, pyramid of numbers.
An influence that results from biological agents, including biotic factors such as lack of sunshine and physiologic factors like hormones. For example, death rates of white-tailed deer, Odocoilus, increase along highways during rutting season at night.
A group of organisms which differ only in their physiological or ecological behavior from other groups in the same species, e.g., woodland white-footed mice, Paramyscus, run in straight lines where meadowwhite-footed mice run zigzag lines.
The factors of biodiversity which are of direct, indirect, or potential use to humanity.
Biological products such as vaccines.
The study of living organisms.
The emission of light by living organisms such as fireflies and jellyfish.
The total mass of all living organisms in a given area.
The statistical study of organisms.
An area defined by social, biological, and geographic criteria, rather than geopolitical jurisdictions.
Directional supervision over an area of similar habitat rather than by standard state/county lines, e.g., cooperative public, private, and business environmental planning for a major watershed such as Chesapeake bay.
Plant and animal life.
All living components of the seston.
That part of the earth and its atmosphere that can support life.
Describes a chemical compound produced by a living organism.
Applied biological science, especially in genetic engineering and DNA technology.
The type of community capable of lasting for long periods of time under the present soil and climate conditions, in combination with the animals living there, including humans. See also: edaphic climax, physiographic climax, sere.
All living things found in the environment of an organism or community.
Environmental influences caused by plants or animals like shading or trampling. Sometimes used so nonliving effects are included, like landslides. See also: coaction.
The natural capacity of an organism to survive and reproduce, which is slowed or controlled by environmental resistance.
1. A substance which promotes or stimulates growth and repair. 2. One member of the Vitamin B complex.
Describes an organism which cannot survive or reproduce unless it is on another organism.
1. A group of organisms sharing a genotype. 2. A particular physical characteristic distinguishing a population of an organism adapted to a particular environment which does not occur in populations of the same species in other environments.
Having two ovules.
A generalization theorizing that the thermocline is the transition layer in lakes in which the temperature decreases at a rate of one or more degrees for each meter in depth.
Completely divided into two parts.
Having two partitions.
Arranged in two rows.
Refers to a serrate border where the principal teeth are serrated.
Having two layers of cells.
Praemorose, with ragged edges as though chewed.
A pair of chromosomes, usually one from each parent.
With two valves.
A fungus appearing as large, fuzzy black spots on rose leaves, especially in wet weather.
Asphalt surfacing used for driveways, paths, and roads.
Inflated, with thin walls like the bladder of an animal.
Injury caused by disease or conditions such as hot winds that shrivel buds, branches, etc.
To have water seep to the surface of cement paste due to settling.
Two or more colors which gradually merge but are distinguishable from a distance of six feet (used in describing dahlias.)
1. A disease of plants resulting in withering, cessation of growth, and death of parts, especially young tissue. 2. An organism that causes blight, such as a bacterium, fungus, or virus.
Where the surface of an organ is puckered, the veins being tighter allowing the tissue to round up.
A storm in which high winds drive fine snow and ice crystals, reducing visibility.
1. An area of little or no drainage acidified by rotting vegetation, often with some open water surrounded by a floating mat of sedges, ericaceous shrubs, acidophilous species, and sphagnum mosses. A quagmire, which trembles or gives way underfoot. 2. Loosely, and not technically correct, a marsh, swamp, moor, fen, muskeg, or heath.
A mucky or peaty surface horizon with a peat underlayment.
A depression lacking above-ground drainage in an arid or semiarid region, a term primarily used in Mexico and southwestern U.S.
A pressurized can of insecticide or other compound.
The state of well being in a population, reflected by increasing numbers of individuals.
Man-made ridges of earth to hold irrigation water within certain limits in a field.
Flooding fields by the use of border dikes.
A demarcation surrounding a plot, usually given the same treatment as the plot.
A tidal wave with a forward wall of water three feet (one meter) or more in height, advancing upstream in a narrow river estuary.
A forest made up mostly of conifers, such as that reaching across North America from Newfoundland to Alaska.
The climatic period from about 7500 to 5500 B.C., typified by warm dry conditions.
Of or relating to plants or botany.
A garden devoted to the culture, study, and exhibition of plants.
1. The scientific study of plant life. 2. A botanical treatise or study.
Those materials composing and overlaying the original basin or channel floor of a waterway.
To pour water into a saucer underneath a container of a houseplant or jardiniere, allowing the soil to absorb the amount needed. This is often done on plants whose leaves are harmed by water spots, such as African violets, Saintpaulia spp. Generally any excess is poured off after an hour.
Refers to organisms with short wings.
Of or pertaining to the bracts.
An evergreen plant that is not a conifer.
Describes leaves with pinnate venation in which the secondary veins do not terminate at the marginsbut rather are joined in a series of prominent arches. See also: acrodromous, eucamptodromous, semicraspedodromous.
Having many parallel branches.
Those soils with dark brown surface horizons, but becoming lighter-colored beneath. They are rich in humus and are neutral to slightly acidic in composition, commonly appearing under deciduous forests that are quite rich in calcium or other bases. See also: brown soils.
Those soils with thin layers of partly decayed leaves over a gray-brown layer of mineral matter and humus that covers yellow or yellow-brown acid B horizons. These appear under deciduous or mixed forests in cool, humid, temperate regions.
Those soils with brown surface horizon, becoming lighter in color with depth. Calcium carbonate appears at one to three feet. These develop under grasslands and shrubs in temperate to cool semiarid climates. See also: brown forest soils.
A condition discovered by Scottish botanist, Dr. Robert Brown (1773-1858), in which rapid vibratory movement of microscopic particles holds the particles and others suspended in a fluid. See also: colloid.
1. A covering of branches spread on eroded land to conserve water and lessen erosion that helps establishes trees and other permanent vegetation. 2. A covering of mesh wire along streambanks that holds brush in place to retard erosion.
Method of propagating woody plants. A cutting of one variety, called the scion, with bud(s) attached is joined onto another related species or variety, called the stock. As the tissues grow together a singleplant is formed with top-growth of the scion on the base of the stock.
A plant or animal which may serve as an alternate food supply for a consumer animal, lessening the demand for a more desirable food species.
1. A strip that partially or fully encloses a study area or other designated area to protect the inner section from ecological disturbance by outside pressures; a transition zone between districts managed for different objectives, such as a wildlife preserve and a state hunting area.
Modification of environmental conditions by planting vegetation or changing topographic features. See also: reaction.
The mass or weight of oven dried soil at 100 to 110 degrees Centigrade, per unit of bulk volume, including air space.
Blistered or puckered.
A style of grass that grows in tufts.
A cluster such as that of pine needles.
One or more layers of soil, formerly at the surface, which have been covered by ash, sand, or other deposition.
A pouch-like receptacle.
1. A shrub, especially one that is low and thick with many stems rather than a single trunk. 2. A tree- or shrub-covered area in Australia or South Africa, or any uncleared land. 3. Sugar bush is a maple forestwhere sap is collected to make maple syrup or candy.
A term from the western united States meaning an isolated hill with steep sides and a relatively flat top that is smaller than a mesa.
Resembling a cactus.
A term used in southeast Asia for an area which has been cleared so that it can be used for farming.
Piled stones used as a landmark or memorial.
Produced into or having a spur.
A plant adapted to growing on limestone or alkaline soil.
Like a calyx, or belonging to the calyx.
A plant preferring alkaline soils; an acidophilous plant.
A plant living on chalky or limy soils.
1. An instrument used to measure the diameter of a tree, or other object. 2. The measurement thus attained, usually at breast height.
A hardened thickening.
An herbal medicine that contains a mild sedative or has a calming effect.
Refers to a part of the calyx, or something that is like a calyx.
Having a calyptra.
1. The oldest geological period in the Paleozoic era, about 500 million years ago. 2. Refers to organisms formed during that period.
A bell tower, usually freestanding.
Growing in fields.
Grassland located south of the equator in Brazil.
A term used in the united States for a tool used for rolling logs, consisting of a wooden lever with a moveable iron hook near the end, often with a lipped iron ring round the tip. See also: log lifter, peavey.
A measurement of the suitability of land for some particular use without permanent damage to the land.
Mathematical rule used in hydraulics to calculate the extent or discharge volume of a channel.
The commercial process of pollination of fig plants by wasps.
Belonging to or of the nature of a capsule.
1. A dry dehiscent fruit composed of more than one carpel that splits partly open at maturity. 2. The enlarged distal end of the sporophyte; it contains the spores, and is sometimes known as the sporangium.
The hard case or shield covering part of the body of animals like turtles and some invertebrates.
The selection and testing of undisturbed soils, buried materials such as wood, firepit remains, and other organic materials, for measurement of radioactive carbon 14 with a half-life of approximately 5,500 years, to determine the rough age of the selected materials.
The process of changing atmospheric carbon into sugar by photosynthesis in plants, synthesis of more complex organic compounds in higher plants and animals, and the return to carbon dioxide by respiration or death and decay of plant and animal tissues.
Refers to the Pennsylvanian (upper carboniferous) and Mississippian (lower carboniferous) geological periods in the upper part of the Paleozoic era, about 200 to 260 million years ago.
Substance capable of producing or inciting cancer.
The four chief directions of a compass reading: north, south, east, and west.
Herbal medicines that can affect the heart.
On or relating to a ridge or keel.
Herbal medicines that can dispel gas from the intestines, relieving colic.
A plant subsisting on nutrients obtained from the breakdown of animal tissue, usually that of insects.
A liquid preservative for cytological materials, containing 3:1 absolute ethyl alcohol and glacial acetic acid.
Orange-yellow hydrocarbon, a pigment which commonly appears in such plants as carrots and squash; a precursor of Vitamin A.
The female organ of red seaweeds.
The post-sexual fruiting stage of a red seaweed.
Hard and tough, but still flexible.
Shaped like a helmet or hood.
Of a chestnut-color; dark brown.
A leaf, or leaf-like organ, usually found below ground.
Refers to a wet or aquatic habitat where the slow breakdown of organic matter is occurring. Organic materials are given off into the medium with much of the oxygen used, but not enough to prohibit the occurrence of aerobic organisms.
A positively charged ion.
Having a slender tail-like appendage.
Having a manifest stem above ground.
The state of flowering from the branches or trunk.
Belonging to the stem.
Capable of destroying by chemical action.
One of the minute vesicles of protoplasm consisting typically of nucleus, cytoplasm, and, in the plant cell, photosynthetic pigments, all enclosed by a cell wall. Any structure containing a cavity, as the cells of an anther or ovary, etc.
A semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm.
An attempt to replicate the method of natural grazing by bison. Livestock are placed in one section or cell of pasture with access to water until all vegetation is eaten or trampled to the ground, then moved to the next section. A common pattern features 10 cells with livestock moved monthly so each section is grazed in different months each year to encourage increase of ice cream grasses. See also: continuousgrazing, rotation grazing.
Refers to the geologic era extending from 40 million years ago to the present era, which started approximately a million years ago.
A specific locality with high levels of genetic or species variance.
A method of agricultural irrigation using a long, wheeled arm with many nozzles that pivots about the center of a circle; used primarily in arid regions.
The middle of many moss stems is made up of a bundle of much narrower and more slender cells, known as the "central strand".; This is usually continuous with the midrib or costa of the leaves, similar to the vascular bundles in the higher plants.
Progressing or developing outward from the center or axis.
Progressing or developing inward from the outside and towards the center or axis.
Having or resembling chaff.
An attribute or property of an organism, functional or structural, which may be adapted through environmental conditions within genetically determined limits.
A cart or map of a sample area showing the placement and area of each plant.
Having the texture of writing paper or parchment and usually not green.
A plant which grows in the crevices of rocks and rock faces. See also: chomophyte.
A short low dam constructed in a waterway to decrease the sp.ed of stream flow and to allow sediments to drop from the water.
A condition found in temperate lakes during the summer and winter stagnation periods in which certain horizontal layers become different chemically from adjacent ones, often causing turnover. See also: thermal stratification.
A process found in certain bacteria in which nutrition is assured by the ability to oxidize inorganicmaterials.
Movement of an organism caused by a chemical stimulus.
Movement or growth of cells or organisms in response to chemical stimuli.
A zonal group of soils with deep fertile surface soil, dark brown to black in color, rich in organic matter, grading into lighter colored soil below, and having a calcium carbonate layer at a depth of 1.5 to 4 feet (45 to 120 cm.). These are often found under tall grasslands in a temperate to cool, somewhat humidclimate.
A zonal group of soils with dark brown surface horizons grading into lighter colored soil below, and a calcium carbonate layer at depths of one to four feet (30 to 120 cm.). These are associated with grasslands in temperate to cool, subhumid to semiarid climates; moister than brown soils, drier than chernozem.
A plant that can endure long snowy winters, or one that requires snow cover in winter.
A plant that does not tolerate long snowy winters, or one that can survive with little or no snow coverduring winter.
A crosswise fusion, as occurs with chromosomes.
Seeds which are dormant or doubly dormant may need actual outdoor climatic conditions of winter, or the indoor equivalent known as stratification. This is usually done by placing the seeds in moist soil in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for several weeks or months.
Working deeply into the subsoil with a chisel plow to break compaction. See also: subsoiling.
The chloride content of a solution, often compared to seawater which is 19.3.
The green coloring-matter within the cells of plants.
Refers to a plant that has chlorosis.
Herbal medicines which promote the flow of bile from the liver.
A plant that grows on rock fissures or crevices, on rocky ledges. See also: chasmophyte.
The study of regions or areas. See also: synchorology.
A pigment-producing microorganism.
A pupa of a butterfly; broadly, any insect pupa.
A spinning disturbance near the Gulf of California, resembling dust whirls on land and waterspouts over water. These environmental disturbances reach great heights, becoming violent enough to capsize small craft.
Refers to fleshy leaves, like agave.
1. Curved into a circle so that the apex is nearly or quite bent around to the leaf base. 2. Coiled in a spiral, with the apex at the center. 3. Coiled from the top downward, as the young frond of a fern.
All of the species and communities that are restricted to a natural vegetation unit.
Said of plants which surround the Northern Hemispere, appearing in both the Old and New Worlds, such as the dandelion.
Refers to species that occur all around the poles in either the north or south and in both the eastern and western hemispheres.
A propagative method also known as air layering.
A deeply-eroded area with steep slopes in a region of past glaciers.
The Convention on International Trade of Endangered species, which provides regulations for the international trade in listed species of plants and animals.
Describes a plant that sprawls or climbs but lacks tendrils.
Club-shaped; gradually thickening from a slender base.
A soil, usually heavy and poorly drained, containing a preponderance of very fine particles.
A plant that can climb given support.
A gradual morphological or physiological change in a group of related organisms across their range, usually correlated to environmental or geographic transition.
A lump of soil.
A group of two or more occurring close together.
Halberd or shield-shaped.
The sharing of authority, responsibility, and benefits among government, businesses, and local communities in the management of natural resources, e.g., cooperation among the National wildflowerResearch Center, Texas Department of Agriculture, landscape architects, and nurseries in the production of native plants for landscaping.
To fuse together.
The union of parts or organs of the same kind.
A naturally rounded stone larger than a pebble and smaller than a boulder; especially such a stone used in paving a street or in construction.
Rounded and concave like a spoon or ladle.
Spiral, like a snail's shell.
A mathematical statement of the frequency of occurrence together of two species not due merely to chance, calculated by dividing the number of samples in which both occur by the number of samples in which it would be expected they both would occur.
Of the same age or existing at the same time.
To live together in the same place and at the same time.
The union of one organ with another of like nature.
A stiff coarse fiber from the outer husk of a coconut.
Situated side by side.
Having small hill-like eminences.
Extremely fine, microscopic particles of rock.
Forming colonies by means of underground rhizomes, stolons, etc.
Hue chips used to simulate colors in the field, as flowers may lose or change color(s) when dried. Examples of such charts are the horticulture Society Color Chart, Nickerson Color Fan, and Horticultural Color Chart.
1. An alternative choice of a legitimate name for a cultivar. 2. A shortened form of the original name, used where the original name is not conducive to sales, e.g., Ilex vomitoria. 3. A sales name chosen by the originator of the cultivar or with the originator's approval.
The surface by which one carpel joins another, as in the Umbelliferae.
Furnished with or resembling a tuft of hairs.
1. Plants which work well together aesthetically, perhaps because they have complementary coloring, or flower at different times of the year, etc. 2. Two or more plants that are used together because one or more are beneficial to one or more of the others, for instance by repelling pests that prey on the other(s).
Relative supremacy with which a region or state may produce a good or service.
A compound containing the three essential minerals for growth: nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K).
A group of very similar and obviously related plants where it is difficult to find identification limitations, and where the relationships are not fully understood.
Folded upon itself; folded lengthwise.
A group composed of several closely related cultivars; grex.
Flattened, especially laterally.
Linked, as on a chain.
Bulging out on one side and caving in on the other, like an eggshell or lens.
Having a common center, as the rings on a target.
A flask-like structure containing reproductive organs.
Uniform in color.
Growing together, especially of parts that were originally separate.
Folded together lengthwise.
One of the scales of a cone.
Running into each other; blended into one.
Similar in shape and size to others.
Belonging to the same genus.
Growing in dense proximity.
United; used especially of like structures joined from the start.
Coming into contact; converging, but not fused.
Recommended protection lists of endangered, threatened, and protected plants, giving information from groups other than those with enforcement powers.
Belonging to the same genus.
Easily visible without a lens, often extended to mean showy or prominent.
Used of capsules that become narrowed under the opening when dry.
Final drawings with accompanying written specifications to be used by contractors in completing a landscape project.
Organisms which break down organic material (such as sugars and proteins) to obtain energy for their own growth, and then return inorganic components to the environment, where they are again available.
In immediate contact.
Describes a climate little influenced by sea, with large ranges between summer and winter temperatures.
Reduced in size by or as if by squeezing or forcing together.
Coming in contact, but not fused.
Shaped like coral, with many branches.
Heart-shaped with the point away from the stem.
Heart-shaped in all three dimensions.
Leathery in texture.
Having a horny texture.
Wax-secreting tubes of certain insects, such as aphids.
Having horn-like projections.
Curved horn overflowing with edible produce, symbolizing abundance.
Shaped like a crown.
The central part of a pollinarium, characteristic of the families Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae.
Wrinkled or in folds.
1. In rhizomes and other axes, the tissue between the stele and the epidermis. 2. In lichens, the outermost layer of the thallus. 3. In seaweeds and fungi, the tissue external to the central tissue of longitudinal cells.
Having a cortex.
A flat-topped or convex open flower cluster, the outer flowers opening first. In the stricter use of the word, equivalent to a contracted raceme and progressing in its flowering from the margin inward.
In corymbs, or corymb-like.
Widely distributed over the world.
A usually small, informal garden making optimal use of space.
A small bay, especially on inland lakes.
In the shape of a saucer or shallow cup; hemispherical or more shallow.
A plant running along at or near the surface of the ground and rooting. See also: creeping.
Dentate with the teeth much rounded.
Shaped like a crescent moon.
Like a lily.
Frizzled, curled, and twisted in various ways.
Process whereby a different crop is planted in a field each successive year, preferably the following crop utilizing nutrients not greatly used by the preceding crop. Insect and disease vectors are also controlled by rotation.
The angle formed between two joining branches.
1. The site on a plant where roots join the stem. 2. In trees, the branches, twigs, and leaves that form the top of a tree. 3. The corona. 4. In roses, the region of the bud union; the point near soil level where the top variety and the understock are joined. 5. An inner appendage to a petal or to the throat of a corolla.
Any plant of the family Cruciferae, including the cabbage, radish, turnip, and mustard.
Pea-sized chips of granite used for paving.
Of hard and brittle texture.
A general name for plants, and plant-like organisms that lack flowers and are not reproduced by seeds, e.g., including ferns, mosses, fungi, and algae. The name is close in translation to something like "hidden marriage."
Looking like crystals or having the nature of crystals.
Shaped like dice.
Hooded or hood-shaped; cowled.
In mosses, a calyptra that is hood-shaped and split on one side only.
A hood-like tissue on some seeds.
Shaped like a cucumber.
Curved like a short, wide scimitar.
Having an open center, with the stamens visible.
With coppery appearance.
With foliage like cypress; Cupressus.
Flexing or bending from a straight line.
Tipped with a cusp or sharp and rigid point. See also: cusp.
Skin or epidermis. The waterproof layer of the epidermis of plants.
A thin waxy covering on the outer layer of a leaf.
What growers of houseplants call slips, used for propagating new plants. The method involves cutting or breaking off a part of the plant, inserting it in growing medium so it can grow a new plant like the one from which it came. Hardwood cuttings are mature wood; softwood cuttings are taken in spring or early summer from tips when plants are actively growing; semihardwood cuttings are taken in late summer or fall when growth has slowed and wood is beginning to harden.
A taxonomic division containing cyanophytes, cyanobacteria, and blue-green algae. These may be singlecells or colonies, and reproduce by fission. They are found in many environments: damp soil and rocks, fresh water, and salt water.
Any plant of the order Cycadales, consisting of palm-like, cone-bearing, evergreen tropical plants that reproduce by means of spermatozoids and have large pinnately compound, usually fan-shaped leaves.
1. A hurricane or typhoon; winds blowing counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere, at sp.s of 90 to 130 miles per hour (150 to 217 km/hr) around a calm center, with a forward thrust of 20-30 mph (33-50 km/hr) and a width of 50 to 900 miles (83-1500 km) diameter. 2. Popularly, any storm moving in a circular motion like a tornado.
Curved suddenly downward, like a swan's neck.
Having the shape of a cylinder.
Bearing cymes, or cyme-like.
The study of cells.
A vale or valley.
The process--manual or automated--of identifying and locating specific facts in stored documents, published or unpublished, and specimen collections of interest to particular uses. See also: literature retrieval, document retrieval.
The mathematical statement of the sum of degrees above a threshold for a designated period, such as those above freezing for the growing season. See also: temperature summation.
A plant that blooms when the length of day is either long or short. See also: photoperiodism.
Lacking a cortex.
Becoming gradually less.
With a downward curve.
Alternating in pairs at right angles.
Inundating an area with water for a long period of time, perhaps 24 hours or more, to permeate the deepest layers of subsoil, thereby pulling roots down where they will not easily perish from drought.
The delay of grazing in forage after growth has started, until development has reached a stage that will promote additional vigor of the plants. See also: cell system pasturing, continuous grazing, rotation grazing.
A stress condition or disease of an organism caused by lack of a nutritive substance such as a vitamin or mineral.
Of a constant number, not exceeding 20.
Bent downward at a sharp angle.
Bent or turned abruptly downward.
Flowering has completed for the season.
A chemical substance which causes a plant to drop its leaves.
1. To cause the leaves of a plant to drop. 2. To remove the leaves of a plant.
Fragile; easily broken.
A low triangle attached at the middle of the wide part, rather than at the point; shaped like the Greek letter delta.
An outline, boundary, delimitation, separation.
Constantly under water.
The study of populations and their analysis regarding reproduction, deaths, age, etc.
Herbal medicines that can break up phlegm or other mucus; sometimes used externally to sooth and soften skin.
The study of woody plants.
Toothed, usually with the teeth directed outward.
The teeth along the margin of an organ.
Applies to a capsule after its lid has detached.
Starved; prevented from coming to its natural size through lack of nourishment.
An association between organisms in which the dependent one receives benefits but gives no benefit to the other, characteristic of such plants as mistletoe, Phoradendron, living on an oak, Quercus; not reciprocal. See also: symbiosis, competition, coaction, parasite.
Privately controlled land or water assumed to have special claim for use of public or cooperatively controlled range.
Somewhat flattened from above.
Bending gradually downward.
The stony surface of dryland areas when fine materials have disappeared from actions of water and wind.
To dry up.
A man-made holding area for the purpose of storing sewer overflow and surface runoff until such time as the water may be released for treatment without causing flooding.
1. Any loose material that has separated from a mass, such as gravel from a rock face.
A geological period in the Paleozoic era, which lasted from about 325 million years to 45 million years ago.
The temperature at which air is capable of holding no additional water vapor, with either a drop in temperature or an increase in water vapor causing the vapor to condense into liquid as rain, fog, or dew. During the course of precipitation, the relative humidity is 100 percent and the saturation deficit is zero.
Turned to the right.
The average, a compromise of position.
With separate petals.
Separation of dissolved substances by their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes.
Herbal medicines that promote perspiration and lower temperature.
Dividing membrane or partition.
Displacement of the earth�s crust by folding or slippage, causing the formation of mountains, chasms, etc.
Refers to branches that spread widely.
Composed of two carpels.
An insecticide extensively used during the period after World War II that is now outlawed in the unitedStates and most of the industrialized world.
Forking regularly by pairs.
The division of a growing point into two halves.
A flowering plant with two cotyledons.
A compound derived from spoiled sweet clover hay and used to delay clotting of blood.
Twin; found in pairs.
Refers to stamens found in two pairs of unequal length.
The dying of the outer portions of a plant due to disease or weather damage; death of part or all of the woody portion of a plant.
One of the mixtures of glycosides used in making digitalis.
A rather derogatory term for one who becomes interested in one field, then another, never delving deeply into any of them, an amateur, or at best a generalist.
Having all the parts of the flower in twos.
Halved diagonally, or as if one half was wanting.
Occurring in two forms.
A depression, as between two sand ridges.
Unobstructed sunlight. See also: skylight.
Breaking apart at the joints when mature.
One of the small tubular, actinomorphic florets which make up the central part of the flower head in Compositae, each with a pistil and stamens but generally no other conspicuous flower parts. See also: ray floret.
Round and flattened. See also: discoid.
Refers to a leaf which has different colors on the two surfaces.
A group of plants growing in a bowl or a shallow pot.
Interaction between organisms in which one or all are harmed, as competition of maple seedlings, Acer, results in tall weak growth.
Unequal, not similar.
1. The actual passage of disseminules or organisms from one place to another. 2. The history of the movement of a group of organisms, such as the introduction of zebra mussels into the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. See also: migration, establishment, spread.
1. The pattern of distribution of individuals within a population, especially in prediction of probability. 2. In soil, the breakdown of aggregates, resulting in a single grain structure. Generally the more easily the soil disperses, the more it will erode.
The depth in bodies of water where light is inadequate for photosynthesis but satisfactory for animal life.
The process by which propagules or organisms are spread.
A plant part that can be easily separated from the parent plant, is dispersed, and can grow into a new plant. See also: diaspore.
Towards the apex in position.
Similar to parts that are separated and not overlapping.
In two vertical ranks.
Separate; not united; evident.
A system of forking streams flowing away from the main stream and not returning to it, as occurs in a delta or on an alluvial plain.
1. The geographic range, continuous or discontinuous, of a plant, animal, or community. 2. Dispersalpatterns of occurrence of individuals in a taxon from a certain area, such as a) random distribution, poisson distribution, normal distribution; b) nonrandom above normal distribution, contagious dispersal, over-dispersion, hyperdispersion; and c) nonrandom below normal distribution, hypodispersion, or even-spaced distribution. The terms following each letter are synonyms.
Herbal medicines taht can promote the flow of urine.
Describes flowers which only open in daylight.
A barrier constructed for diverting part or all of the water in a streambed into a different watercourse.
1. A major taxonomic grouping, ranking just below kingdom and above class. In the animal kingdom, it is usually replaced by the phylum. 2. Method of propagation for clump-forming plants through pulling apart fibrous-rooted clumps. 3. The removal of suckers from a parent plant for the purposes of propagation.
A more comprehensive term than 'literature retrieval' since it encompasses unpublished materials such as manuscripts, research notes, films, specimens, as well as published literature. See also: data retrieval.
In botany systematics, this term covers the total strategy for identifying, citing, referencing, substantiating and authenticating, validating, verifying, and vouchering information used for a specific purpose in a taxonomic study.
The equatorial belt lying between the two trade wind belts that is characterized by calm or light variable winds and low atmospheric pressure.
Shaped like a barrel.
1. A mineral consisting of a calcium magnesium carbonate. 2. Limestone or marble rich in magnesium carbonate.
A small structure located in the axils of the primary veins on the lower surface of leaves in some woodydicotyledons, usually consisting of depressions and being partly enclosed by leaf tissue or hairs.
A South African term for a gully with steep sides or a dry watercourse.
Temporary cessation of growth.
In the state of suspended growth.
Attached at the back.
Having more than the usual number of petals, often arranged in extra rows.
An exclusive process of angiosperms in which one male nucleus pollinates the egg nucleus to form a zygote, which develops into an embryo, while the other male nucleus joins with two other nuclei in the embryo sac to form endosperm, which can be found in corn, Zea mays, and other grasses.
Each tooth bearing smaller teeth.
An undulating, usually treeless upland plain having sparse soil.
An Australian term for temperate grasslands.
A fungus forming grayish downy patches, usually on the underside of leaves.
Any of the largest natural subdivisions of the watersheds of a continent, such as the Mississippi, Columbia, and Colorado basins of North America.
Blotters, newsprint or other materials which absorb moisture from plants in plant presses.
An open structure, like a wire fence, constructed across a stream channel to catch driftwood.
A fence constructed to prevent livestock from wandering from their allotted range to another one, often used as an extension of natural barriers such as large rivers and cliffs.
A method of irrigation where tubes or hoses, sometimes porous, are brought close to plants and water is allowed to trickle out at a very slow, but constant rate.
The line that could be drawn on the ground under a tree beneath the outermost tips of the branches. Rain flows off the tree at this point, so it is the area where roots congregate and the best point to place fertilizer, water, etc.
A period of dryness; especially one that causes extensive damage to plants.
Capable of surviving for extended periods with little or no rainfall.
Resembling or of the nature of a drupe.
A diminutive drupe.
1. Agricultural operations in semiarid or arid regions without the use of irrigation. 2. A system of cultivation making heavy use of mulch and fallow periods to absorb and retain much of the rainfall.
Building in stone without mortar.
A generally unstable mound or ridge of sand built up by winds, most common in deserts and along shores.
1. An area of tiny rock particles accumulated by wind action into mounds or hummocks, generally with little or no vegetation and undergoing continual redeposition. 2. Refers to rock particles with diameters of 0.1 to 0.4 mm. which have been heaped up by the wind, even if found far underground.
Feces, animal droppings, scat.
1. n. A powdered chemical poison to kill insects or disease. 2. v. To apply the powder.
An intensely whirling column of air caused by a bubble of hot air caught between two cooler layers of air. Dust devils range from a foot to a mile high (30 cm. to 1.5 km.) mostly in arid regions; they spin dust and debris but can also shake houses and slam birds into trees.
1. A plant that, due to an inherited characteristic, is shorter or slower growing than normal forms. 2. Dahlia varieties which normally do not produce plant growth over 24 inches in height.
An insect that makes ragged holes flowers and leaves.
Black as ebony.
With no callus.
Not located at the geometrical center.
The establishment of a plant or animal in a new habitat.
Beset with prickles.
1. Acoustic orientation such as that used in sonar. The ability of animals, e.g., bats, to emit high frequency sounds and then determine the whereabouts of themselves and other objects by hearing the corresponding echoes the sounds produce.
To become established, to spread, to invade. See also: ecesis.
1. The rate of increase or decrease of a variable character in the adaptation of a species, associated with environmental changes. See geocline. 2. The group exhibiting such a gradient. 3. A gradient of ecosystems along an environmental gradient, including both the gradient of natural communities and the complex gradient of environmental conditions. See also: coenocline.
The state in communities in which one or more species, by their size, number or coverage, exert considerable influence or control over the associated species.
A mathematical statement of the ratio between the energy available to an organism or group or group processes, and the energy actually expended. For example, a bear may use less calories to hunt a rabbit during the summer than the calories gained from the rabbit, but winter hunting expends more than is gained, so it is more ecologically efficient for bears to hibernate. A 10 percent gain is average, 20 percent very good, 5 percent typical of the top of the food chain.
Any variable of the environment that impacts the life of one or more organisms. May be classified into A: climatic, physiographic, edaphic and biotic factors; or B: direct, indirect, and remote factors. See also: biotic, limiting factor, density dependent factor.
Life span; the average length of life of a species under stated conditions.
The concept that in most food chains, the number of individuals decreases at each stage, with huge numbers of tiny individuals at the base and a few large individuals at the top, as displayed by millions of plankton, a moderate number of large fish, and a few eagles.
The study of the relation of organisms to their environments.
Lacking a cortex.
Lacking a costa.
Travel undertaken to areas of unique natural or ecologic quality, or the provision of services to facilitate such travel.
The study of soils.
With no teeth.
The abbreviation for the white crystalline acid often used as a chelating agent.
Microscopic organisms that enter the tissues of plants and cause rotting.
The extent to which roots of plants penetrate readily to reach water and nutrients.
The outflow of water or other fluid. See also: influent.
Shaped like an egg, with the broadest portion below the middle.
Widest in the middle and tapering evenly to both ends.
A soluble substance capable of conducting ions when dissolved.
Organisms typical of a certain region or habitat, but may occur outside of it, such as a group of prairiespecies found in the eastern part of the united States. See also: ecological factor, vicariation, ecological equivalence.
Without strap organs.
Narrow at the ends and broad near the center.
Oblong with rounded ends.
Much longer than wide.
See A horizon.
Having a shallow notch at the extremity.
1. In plants, the removal of male flowers or anthers to prevent self-pollination, such as removing tassels from corn, Zea mays, for hybridization. 2. In animals, castration, the removal of testicles, as done with some bulls to turn them into steers to produce tender meat.
A mass of tissue that resembles an embryo.
Refers to outgrowths on the surface of an organ, such as warts, prickles, etc.
Raised above the water.
Herbal medicines that can induce vomiting.
The process of leaving a locality more or less permanently.
Herbal medicines that can soften skin.
An outgrowth on the surface of an organ.
An area fenced or otherwise encircled to pen in animals, e.g., sheep. An exclosure is similarly treated to shut out other species, like coyotes, so the same area can be both an enclosure and an exclosure.
A state of inactivity of an organism surrounded by a protective case; metabolism is lowered while resistance is raised to unfavorable environmental conditions. See also: cyst.
A bud, or sometimes several, located at the end of the twig.
A species adjudged to be threatened with extermination.
The inner layer of a pericarp.
The existence of a parasite within an organism, like a tapeworm.
An asexual reproductive body found mostly in bacteria.
The inner row of teeth of a peristome.
The intake, conversion and passage of energy through an organism or ecosystem.
Shaped like a sword.
Without toothing or division.
Pollinated by insects.
The degradation of energy, a measure of the degree of disorder of a system.
The surrounding part.
The influence of surroundings in initiating activities of organisms or certain processes, such as longer days initiating egg laying in birds.
The second geological epoch in the Cenozoic era--the Tertiary period, that opened about 58 million years ago and lasted for 19 million years.
With no pappus.
The deforming of the earth�s crust, producing continents, ocean basins, and great plateaus. See also: diastrophism.
With no petals.
Living on the surface of bottom sediments in a water body.
Outside the bark.
The pervasive spread of organisms which are parasitic, predatory, or damaging.
The outermost layer of cells covering the plant.
Growing on rocks.
Borne on or attached to the petals.
Growing on rock.
An organism that grows on leaves. See also: epiphyte.
Growing on a leaf, usually through vegetative reproduction.
A plant growing attached to another plant, but not parasitic; an air plant.
Borne on or attached to the sepals.
Herbal medicines which can cause blisters.
Suppression of the effect of a gene by another, nonallelic gene.
An epiphyte animal.
Lacking bloom on the surface.
The same measurement apart.
Midway between erect and patent.
Vertical or upright
Belonging to regions of low, irregular rainfall.
Like a heath.
Prickly, with sharp points.
Irregularly cut away as if gnawed.
Slow destruction of soil or rock by the action of water, wind, or ice.
Herbal medicines applied in the nose to promote discharge of mucus.
Appearing to be ready to break through.
Any volatile plant oil used in perfume or flavorings.
Stagnating or otherwise nonfunctional during the summer months. See also: hibernation.
The plant lore and agricultural customs of a people; the systematic study of such lore.
The study and practice of medicines used by a people.
To alter the natural development of a plant by excluding sunlight, often resulting in pale or bleached foliage. Etiolation is one method of layering for propagation; the shaded parts turn white or cream and develop no leaves.
Describes leaves having pinnate venation in which the secondary veins do not terminate at the marginsbut which gradually diminish inside the margin, connected to the superadjacent secondary veins by a series of cross-veins without forming prominent marginal loops. See also: acrodromous, brochidodromous, semicraspedodromous.
Rich in dissolved nutrients, photosynthetically productive and often deficient in oxygen during warm weather.
Disappearing at maturity.
Plants with flowers which hold their color and shape when dried.
Organic evolution is any genetic difference in organisms from generation to generation.
A conservation method that entails the removal of seed, pollen, sperm or individual organisms from their original habitat, keeping these resources of biodiversity alive outside of their natural environment.
Lacking an ala.
With no appendages.
Without an aril.
Refers to parts being compared in size where one is longer than the other.
Abnormal development, an outgrowth.
1. A growth habit with a single vertical trunk, the branches obviously secondary. 2. Describes a costarunning out beyond the lamina of a leaf. 3. Running out, as a nerve of a leaf projecting beyond the margin.
Curved out and away from the central part.
1. An open or colonnaded recess used for conversation, often semicircular and furnished with seats or a long bench. 2. A semicircular bench with a solid back.
To peel off or shed, as the thin layers of bark.
Cleaving off in thin layers.
Small and narrow.
The outer layer or skin of a pericarp.
The outer row of teeth of a peristotne.
Not native, from another area.
A species that is not native to a particular geographic location, but may have become naturalized there.
Increased in area or size.
Flat, fanned out.
Lacking a stipe.
Having no stipules.
Still in existence; not extinct.
Capable of enlargement or extension.
No longer living; no longer in existence.
Wiped out, completely destroyed. Carries the connotation of differing from extinction in that it is more often due to human causes.
A product prepared by removing essential constituents of a plant, such as oils for flavorings.
Outside the stamens.
Outside the tropics.
Matter oozing from a surface.
Outside the sheath.
A red cytoplasmic structure sensitive to light.
A part of a climax association which lacks some of the dominants of the normal association due to slight differences in environmental fundamentals.
1. A variation of the biotope, differing from the typical conditions in minor ways. 2. A deviation in a community like a dogwood, Cornus, or shrub facies in an oak forest. 3. The top to bottom appearance of a plant, including foliage, flowers, fruit, roots, etc. See also: faciation.
Scythe-shaped; curved and flat, tapering gradually.
A line connecting the points where rivers leave the uplands as they flow to the lowlands, indicated by sharper slopes and waterfalls.
An extra growth ring produced in a season with a drought and then more rain.
A waxy-appearing substance exuded from glands.
Containing starch; powdery, starch-like.
A close bundle or cluster.
In close bundles or clusters.
A fibrous root where some of the branches are thickened.
Describes branches that are erect and near together, forming a columnar shape.
A collective term, including all the kids of animals in an area or geologic period.
An area with characteristic kinds of animals.
Animal droppings, manure, scats.
Low marshy ground containing peat that is relatively rich in mineral salts and is alkaline rather than acidic. It is usually found in the upper parts of old estuaries or around fresh water lakes, with vegetation quite different from that of moors.
An ancient Chinese discipline combining town planning, environmental impact, architecture and interior decoration. Time, space, and action are designated to increase energy, harmony, healing, etc.
Synthetic or natural organic substances providing essential plant foods. It most often includes nitrogen (N), phosphorus (phosphate; P), and potassium (potash; K).
Carrying an unpleasant odor.
1. Furnished or abounding with fine fibers. 2. Having fibrils.
Composed of woody fibers and ducts.
The regularity with which a species occurs in certain plant communities, expressed in a five-part scaleranging from the most to least common: 5) exclusive, 4) selective, 3) preferential, 2) companion or indifferent, 1) accidental or stranger.
Materials used to hold wet plant samples for long periods of time, or to hold plant specimens in tropicalareas. Examples are 2:3 commercial 40 percent formaldehyde and water; 1:2 formaldehyde and 70 percent alcohol; 40-50 percent alcohol; 1-2 percent aqueous solution of oxyquinoline sulfate. Specimens may be dipped, sprayed, or brushed with one of these, then enclosed in an airtight container.
A pocket-sized notebook which holds complete data on a field trip, including the precise location of places explored, dates, flora collected with any assigned numbers such as a tube of pollen or seeds, information on such things as a location in shade or sun, insects found on plants, moisture, bloom or fruit and their colors, and nearby plants, etc.
A specialized strip cropping where crops are planted in parallel bands across a slope but do not follow contour lines; bands of grass or other close-growing species are alternated with the bands of cultivatedcrops.
An experiment conducted under regular field conditions, less subject to control than a precise contained experiment.
Thread-shaped; long, slender, and terete.
A land connection that remains in place for a demonstrated period of time, restricted in extent, limiting the kinds of organisms which can migrate over it, such as the Bering Strait in the Pleistocene period. See also: corridor, sweepstakes bridge.
A permanent strip of low plantings on the lower side of a field that is sufficiently wide and dense to slow the movement of runoff, allowing deposition of silt on the strip rather than its transport to a stream or pond. See also: field border plantings.
Having a minute fringe.
A soil that consists mostly of silt and clay, with little or no sand or gravel.
Materials from rock and organic extraction that are often carried away by the action of wind or water.
The risk level of a fire starting under prevailing climatic conditions, often simply low, average, or high.
A bacterial disease of rose family.
The flood plain that is closest to a stream or is at the lowest elevation above a stream; the first to be flooded.
A term commonly used in Scotland that means a long narrow arm of the sea or the mouth of an estuary.
A sloping structure over which water is allowed to flow, to help fish in breeding season to ascend a stream which forms a waterfall.
Easy to split.
Having deep cracks.
The suitability of a habitat for preserving life.
Whip-like in shape.
Tiny whip-like appendage that is capable of movement.
The side of anything, like the west flank of a mountain.
Low, exposed land of a lake delta or a lake bottom; or often brushy land along the floodplain of a stream.
Succulent or juicy.
Easily bent or twisted.
Clothed with locks or flocks of soft hair or wool.
Resembling wool especially in loose fluffy organization.
The almost level land forming the floor on either side of a stream in a valley, often subject to flooding.
All plants as a group; the particular plants of a region.
Belonging to or associated with a flower.
A round-pointed shovel.
Flower-bearing; blooming profusely.
Species that are characteristic of a designated region but may also occur in a different one, e.g., a midwest united States species growing in the upper levels of the Smoky Mountains is a midwest element of those mountains.
A container attached to a porch railing or window sill planted with colorful species.
The bud which contains a flower or a cluster of flowers.
The initiation of the production of flowers, possibly stimulated by florigen.
A relatively atypical departure from more average conditions, but still within normal limits.
1. In the united States, a ravine or gorge with a stream running through it. 2. A man-made open conduit, often made of wood or concrete, for the purposes of irrigation, power, etc. It operates by transporting liquids across a stream or depression which intersects the course of the conduit.
With rounded, longitudinal grooves or ridges.
A migratory pathway of birds, like the Mississippi flyway following the Mississippi River.
A device used to apply a pesticide in suspension in water or air.
Leaf-like in texture or appearance.
The leaves of a plant taken collectively.
Evaluation of the nutrients in a plant, or the plant nutrient requirements of a soil, by analyzing the leaves.
The process whereby plants are fertilized by application of liquid onto the leaves rather than through the soil.
A member of the B vitamin complex, found mostly in the leaves of plants.
Like a follicle.
An ever increasing progression of edibles, from microscopic plankton which are eaten by small animals, which in turn are eaten by larger animals, and so on, up to the largest predator. The animals all die and are digested by fungi and bacteria, starting the chain all over again.
The location of a particular organism in a food cycle.
A theoretical graphic illustration showing the immense number of producer organisms at the base and the progressively decreasing numbers of herbivores and carnivores toward the peak.
The number of forage acres needed for the maintenance of X numbers of mature grazing animals for a specified period of time.
1. The total parts of plants that can be reached by grazing or browsing animals. 2. A measure of the yield of feed, the total amount produced on a certain range during a year.
A low pile of sand, often held in place by dune grass, bordering the shore of a sandy lake or sea.
Relating to the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems, as a forensic entomologist helps place time of death by developmental stages of insects on the deceased.
That portion of the beach occupied on a daily basis by tides.
The boundary or ecotone of a forest where it meets with some other kind of vegetation such as a marsh.
Divided into nearly equal branches.
The rank of taxa below variety; the narrowest taxon; a plant which retains most of the characteristics of the species, but differs in some way such as flower or leaf color, size of mature plant, etc. A forma is added to the specific binomial and preceded by "f.", such as rubra in the epithet Cornus florida f. rubra.
A small but constant variation within a population of plants, such as a white-flowered plant in a normally purple-flowered population.
Two weeks, fourteen nights.
Refers to animals that burrow in the soil, e.g., voles.
Debris and fecal matter produced by insects.
1. The level of regularity found in the distribution of individuals of a species in an area, especially in a stand. See also: constancy, stand. 2. A general term for a group of plants with more or less regularity of physiognomy, composition, and habitat. See also: community, association.
That part of the earth lying north of the arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle. See also: temperate zone, tropic zone.
The border between warm and cold air masses at the earth’s surface.
The time between the last spring frost and the first autumn frost.
Capable of bearing fruit.
The act or organs of fruiting.
An animal that eats fruit.
A basket made of wire with curved tips, fastened to a long handle, to catch fruit and pluck it from the ground.
Resembling a shrub.
Resembling a seaweed, especially Fucus.
A hole in the earth from which heat and gasses escape under pressure.
An agent to inhibit the growth of, or destroy fungus.
Refers to organisms that eat fungi.
Resembling a fungus, mushroom-shaped.
A small earth blockade for holding water within a furrow. See also: lister.
Spindle-shaped; swollen in the middle and narrowing toward each end.
A taproot which tapers at the top as well as the bottom, like a white radish.
Helmet-shaped; having a galea.
An abnormal growth or swelling caused by insects, fungus, etc.
The organ producing the gametes.
Composed of coalescent leaves or leaf-like organs.
The proper term for landscaped area or yard. To many Americans, the term refers only to the vegetable garden.
A lightweight hoe for weeding, etc., in home or truck gardens.
A free-standing roofed structure usually open on the sides.
Having the consistency of jelly or gelatin.
Equal, in pairs.
With vegetative buds.
Bent abruptly, like a knee.
A sharply bent joint or node.
The genetic constitution of an organism, acquired from its parents and available for transmission to its offspring. See also: phenotype.
The sprouting of a plant seed.
The genetic material with its specific molecular and chemical makeup that comprises the physical foundation of the hereditary qualities of an organism.
Protuberant or swollen on one side.
A root that has become wrapped around the trunk of the plant which inhibits the uptake of nutrients; usually occurring in plants grown in containers.
Somewhat glabrous, or becoming glabrous.
Becoming glabrous in age.
A tiny gland or pore, usually secreting fluid.
Bearing glands or of the nature of a gland.
Teeth that bear glands.
Bluish white; covered or whitened with a very fine, powdery substance.
Spherical or nearly so.
A monosaccharide sugar widely found in plant and animal tissue.
Furnished with or resembling glumes.
A bond between a sugar and another organic molecule by way of an intervening nitrogen or oxygen atom.
Changing existing levels of ground areas.
The mingling of tissues belonging to the stock and scion through grafting in a nonsexual manner. These are designated in formulae by a crucifix type cross which appears as "_", e.g., _Laburnocytisus adamii (Laburnum anagyroides _ Chamaecytisus purpureus).
Related to grain-bearing plants.
A container fitted onto a lawn mower to catch grass clippings while mowing.
An artificial recess or structure made to resemble a natural cave, often having running water.
Another name for tip layering.
Subsurface body of water body in the zone of saturation; That portion of the water beneath the surface of the earth that can be collected with wells, tunnels, or drainage galleries, or that flows naturally to the earth's surface via seeps or springs.
A heavy weight hoe for digging roots, etc.
The two cells that bound a stoma and by opening and closing allow gas exchange.
The outer petals of a rose, especially those that are larger than and also enclose the inner petals.
A miniature valley eroded by water. See also: ravine, valley.
1. The formation of drops of water on plants from moisture in the air. 2. The exudation of liquid water from the uninjured surface of a plant leaf. 3. The process of water being exuded from hydathodes at the enlarged terminations of veins around the margins of the leaves.
Without a peristome.
One of the larger (female) reproductive bodies in the Isoetaceae, etc.
The abbreviation for the height and spread of a plant.
The general appearance of a plant.
The natural dwelling place of an animal or plant; the type of environment where a particular species is likely to be found.
1. A plant adapted to living in highly saline habitats. 2. A plant that accumulates high concentrations of salt in its tissues.
Curved like a hook.
Reproducing once only at the end of the plant's life.
An orientation response of an organism to stimulation by touch.
1. The process of gradually taking plants into a harsher environment, e.g., from the hothouse to the garden. 2. The term can also mean sustaining a plant from summer to winter, which may include a three-staged process: 1) phytochrome clocks signal the shortening days with a color change. 2) Growth ceases, carbohydrates are transported to the roots, and abscisic acid forms at the union of leaf and stem, dropping the leaf and healing the wound. The dropped leaves serve as mulch and protect the roots from excess cold in the winter, while cell walls toughen. 3) A smooth ice forms around the cells without rupturing them, a process called vitrification.
The ability of a plant to withstand winter cold and summer heat.
Man-made objects of a landscape as opposed to natural objects like plants and streams.
A metal fabric that is more coarse than a window screen but finer than fencing.
A term used regarding plants that describes their ability to withstand cold. It does not mean that the plant is long-living, pest resistant, or drought tolerant.
A short axe.
1. A dense cluster of sessile or nearly sessile flowers on a very short axis or receptacle; heart-shaped. 2. Ovate with two rounded lobes and a sinus at the base; commonly used to define such a base. 3. The number of animals, e.g., 40 horses, that would be counted by a farmer/rancher as 40 head of horses, or merely 40 head.
To cut back the main branches of a woody plant severely.
An imprecise term which refers to soil in which the particles are packed closely together with little air or water available to the roots of the plant.
A hedge trimmer is a gardening tool or machine used for trimming (cutting, pruning) hedges or solitary shrubs (bushes). Different designs as well as manual and powered versions of hedge trimmers exist.
A garden created using plants that were in cultivation in the past, usually from a particular period.
A plant that was developed and in cultivation sometime in the past.
Having the shape of a flattened coil, often describing a cyme.
Adapted to, or capable of, growing in full sunlight.
Herbal medicine that can stop bleeding.
1. The course fibers used to make cordage derived from plants of the genus Cannibis, or other similar plants. 2. A plant of the genus Cannibis.
1. A book about herbs, usually illustrated. 2. Of, or relating to, herbs.
One who practices herbalism.
1. An organized and cataloged collection of plant specimens. 2. A specialized room or building with constant levels of temperature, moisture and restricted light where plant samples are stored in a designated pattern in large light proof cabinets, allowing samples to remain useful and to be retrieved for study and comparison for centuries.
A substance that is fatal to plants, or to selected plants.
A usually small building provided for contemplation, especially of nature.
Producing more than one kind of fruit.
Bearing two kinds of flowers.
Turned in different directions.
A powder containing large quantities of nutrient elements.
A small hill. See also: knoll.
The scar or point of attachment of the seed.
Grayish-white with a fine close pubescence.
Able to bear just one kind of flower.
Refers to organs or parts that are similar in form or function.
Turned in the same direction.
Shaped the same.
A biochemical product of a specific cell or tissue that causes a change or activity in a cell or tissue located elsewhere in an organism.
With a texture which is hard and brittle, but having a fine texture and is easy to cut.
A term used in a botanical name to indicate that it is not a properly accepted binomial, but is a name used by gardeners and nurseries, perhaps published, but in nursery catalogs rather than scientific journals. It can stand for three terms: hort., meaning "of the garden;" hortorum, meaning "of gardens;" or hortulanorum, meaning "of gardeners." All three are abbreviated hort., and are never capitalized so as to avoid being mistaken for an author's name.
Paper or plastic tent covers used to protect small plants from damaging weather conditions.
An outdoor pit enclosed with a glass roof and heated by fermenting material, hot water pipes, or electric cables.
A plant which can be grown indoors, usually for decorative reasons.
Abbreviation for plant height.
A salt or ester of a humic acid.
A substance which promotes retention of moisture; a moistening agent such as crystals of polymer hydrogel, which take up water, releasing it slowly for the roots of thirsty plants.
An instrument for measuring, sometimes controlling, the amount of water vapor in the air.
The moisture in air.
A mound rising above the surrounding land, usually overgrown with vegetation.
Partly or wholly decomposed vegetable matter.
An epidermal structure specialized for the secretion or exudation of water.
Of, or adapted to, an extremely moist habitat.
The growth of an organism or a part, such as a root, in response to the presence of water.
1. Altering form or position through changes of moisture. 2. Readily absorbing water and thereby altered in form or direction. Hygrometric is sometimes used with a similar meaning. 3. Pertaining to water that is electrostatically bound to the surface of dirt particles and is therefore unavailable to plants.
The primeval forest.
Refers to an herbal medicine that can elevate blood pressure.
1. Refers to herbal medicines that can lower blood sugar. 2. A patient with low blood sugar.
Refers to herbal medicines that can reduce blood pressure.
Refers to plants that have flowers develop before the leaves.
Overlapping, either vertically or spirally, where the lower piece covers the base of the next higher, or laterally, as in the aestivation of a calyx or corolla, where at least one piece must be wholly external and one internal.
Closely overlapping each other like the tiles of a roof.
Cut sharply and irregularly, more or less deeply.
Not at all protruded from the surrounding envelope.
Thickened, often relating to cell walls.
Inconstant in number or very numerous.
Native and original to the region.
Provided with an indusium.
The flowering part of a plant, and especially the mode of its arrangement.
1. An organism which sways interactions within a community but is not a dominant species; one which influences. 2. The flow of water from a stream into a body of water, especially subterranean storage. See also: effluent.
As a prefix, denotes below.
Below the middle.
Shaped like a funnel.
The material used in an inoculation.
1. Being or composed of matter other than that from a plant or animal. 2. Not arising from natural growth; artificial.
A powdered or liquid chemical mix of nutrients which does not contain carbon.
Bugs that carry and distribute disease-causing microorganisms.
Feeding on insects.
Attached to or growing out of.
A philosophy of pest management based on the idea of using the least dangerous course first; stresses the use of natural controls, such as insect predators, over the use of chemical pesticides.
An outer covering or coat.
As a prefix, denotes between or among.
Between the leaves of a pair, as the stipules of many Rubiaceae.
1. Refers to a grafting scion which is attached at both ends either simultaneously or successively. 2. Refers to hybrids apparently combining the characters of both of their parents in equal measure and standing midway between them.
Describes an inflorescence with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with conspicuous gaps. Also describes the fertile frond of some ferns with the clusters of sporangia similarly arranged.
The shore zone between high and low tides.
As a prefix, denotes within or inside.
Within and near the margin.
Brought intentionally from another region for purposes of cultivation.
Turned inward or toward the axis.
Inside a sheath.
Refers to scientific names published with incomplete information or in an invalid publication.
Spreading aggressively from the original site of planting.
Having an involucre.
Belonging to an involucre.
Having an involucre.
Having equal diameters.
Having upper and lower surfaces which are similar in form.
Having a similar form, but being genetically different.
Refers to an organism that has multiple reproductive seasons over its lifetime. See also: semelparity.
Paired, with prefixes for the number of pairs; bijugate would be two pairs.
Young; not adult.
Any of various large brown seaweeds, sometimes used to enrich poor soil.
One of the primary taxonomic categories into which natural objects are commonly classified. There are currently five kindoms used: Plantae, Animalia, fungi, Monera (bacteria) and Protista (protozoans, some types of algae, etc.).
Having nodes or lumps.
The sclerophyllous vegetation of the sand plains of south-western Western Australia.
Lipped; belonging to the Labiatae.
Describing dahlias with the split or fimbriation in proportion to ray floret length, and no less than 1/6 of ray floret length, there should be a twisting in the area of the split involute or revolute ray florets, to give an overall fringed effect.
A latex duct which may or may not produce the milky sap.
Describes a plant with a milky sap; producing latex.
A cavity or gap, usually referring to one found in tissue.
Shaped like a bottle or flask.
A relatively shallow pond, sound or lake, especially one connected to the sea.
The nearly flat bed of an extinct lake or the lowland surrounding an existing lake.
A parcel of real estate which does not border any road for access.
A person trained in the location of landscape elements for human use and enjoyment. It involves the placement of structures, traffic flow, and plantings.
The design of outdoor space for maximum enjoyment.
A company or individual performing landscape installations.
An improper term applied to anyone doing landscape work. Often the person is untrained.
Any cane growing from a main cane.
In gardening, any overhead plant protection structure that reduces direct sunlight or protects plants from frost. Wooden strips called laths, wired together in snow fences, were originally used for that purpose.
Having broad partitions. See also: angustiseptate.
A lawn mower is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height. Most common types are the reel mower, walk-behind mower, ride-on tractor and zero turn mower.
Any of various diseases which lead to the browning and dropping of a plant’s leaves.
A bud which contains undeveloped leaves.
A disease that causes leaves to roll up.
The leaves that have fallen from a plant, either through normal seasonal changes or due to disease. Especially in the latter case, leaf litter can harbor pathogens and should be cleaned up promptly, particularly around plants such as roses. In a naturalized, woodland setting, leaf litter can be a normal part of the workings of the garden.
Tiny grubs that tunnel in leaves leaving whitish blotches or trails.
Any of various plant diseases that cause well-defined areas of tissue to die creating noticeable spots.
Of a smoothly tough texture.
A specimen selected from the original material used by the author in naming a taxon, when no holotypewas designated or if the holotype is missing. See also: holotype, isotype, nomenclatural type, syntype, topotype, neotype.
The shore toward which the prevailing winds are blowing. It is not protected from strong wave action and may have breakers. See also: windward shore.
Refers to a plant growing tall and spindly, usually from inadequate sunlight.
Pertains to a legume or to the Leguminosae.
With a thin primary stem.
Thin-coated; applied to capsules when soft and pliable.
Any of various high-climbing woody plants, usually found in the tropics.
Characteristic structure of a plant or animal.
Digging up and removing a plant from its surrounding soil.
A frost where the air has dropped below freezing but the ground has not. Many plants can survive a light frost but cannot survive a hard frost.
1. Incomplete shade, where some sunlight is still available. 2. An area in shade for only part of the day.
Furnished with a ligule.
1. A branch of a tree. 2. The expanded portion of any petal, or of a leaf, such as the expanded portion of a gamopetalous corolla above the throat. 3. The upper part of a leaf as distinct from the leaf base.
Refers to timber with branches removed.
Plant unable to thrive in alkaline.
The study of fresh water bodies with regard to physical, chemical, geological, meteorological, biological, and ecological conditions. Oceanography encompasses the same specialties for marine salt waters.
The lower petals of some irregular flowers, often elaborately showy, as in orchids.
An agricultural implement consisting of a double plow, in which the plowshares force the soil in opposite directions, forming a series of alternate ridges and furrows. The basin lister comes with an attachment that forms low soil dams across each furrow at intervals of 15 to 25 feet (to 6.5 m.), forming basins to hold large amounts of water.
The rock layers surrounding a fossil that allow the age of the fossil to be determined.
A plant that grows on rocks.
Of or existing on a shore.
The shallow water along the shore from zero to the depth where plants no longer root, about 10 feet (3 m.) deep.
Having numerous lobes.
Any segment of an organ, especially if rounded.
A less expensive land survey done to only prove that a specific building or right of way is situated on a plot of land, rather than the more detailed metes and bounds survey which gives all border limitations and positions.
A variation of a climax association, differing from the normal in the kinds of subdominants. See also: faciation.
A tool designed to easily roll a log, a cant hook, or pike.
Describes a plant where the individuals subsist for a number of years.
Of, relating to, or living in actively moving water. See also: lentic.
The central cavity of an organ or cell.
Of the shape of a half-moon or crescent.
A yellow carotenoid pigment, usually found with chlorophyll in plants. Also called xanthophyll.
The larger kind of spore in Selaginellaceae, etc.
Blotched with broad, irregular patches of color.
Hairs which are straight and oppressed but attached by the middle.
Convex with a short projection in the center.
Shaped like a nipple.
Withering but persistent.
With a border of a different color.
Describes climate mainly influenced by the sea, generally with mild winters, cool summers, and frequent rain.
A mixture of clay and the carbonates of calcium and magnesium, from precipitation in acidic waters, and from dissolved shells and limestone.
A waist-high tool with a metal head consisting of a horizontal blade with one end twisted as a dull axeand the other end flat or pointed. It is used for breaking hard soil, digging roots, and other heavy work.
Cells from the middle of the leaf.
Any herb which is used as a curative or preventative.
Attached by or at the middle.
Made up of pith, spongy.
Pollination by bees.
Like a membrane; thin, rather soft, and more or less translucent.
Thin in texture, soft and pliable.
Thin and concavo-convex, like the crystal of a watch.
A chin-like extension on a flower, particularly in Orchidaceae.
Cardboard containers purchased flat for easy transport, then opened in the field when needed to hold plant specimens.
The middle and photosynthetic tissue of a leaf.
Dryland plants, xerophytes, have adaptations to survive for months with no water; water plants, hydrophytes, live in water; mesophytes are all other plants--which need small amounts of water on a regular basis.
The middle layer of the coat of a seed.
A surveyor's term meaning the legal circumscribing lines setting the outer limits of a tract of land.
A microscopic fossil, e.g., that of a pollen grain.
A very small leaf.
The leaf bearing the microsporangi.
A fungus that leaves a thin white coating on the surface where it grows.
The isolated population of least numbers which has a good chance of surviving despite the foreseeable effects of demographic, environmental, and genetic events and natural catastrophes.
Cytoplasmic structure containing enzymes used in converting food to energy.
Shaped like a mitre or cap.
Resembling a string of beads; cylindrical with contractions at intervals.
A prefix meaning one.
Refers to fruit with one female organ.
Describes a plant that dies after flowering just once.
Like a dichasial cyme, but with branches on only one side.
The agricultural practice of planting a field or other land mass with a single crop, all of the same age, like wheat or pine trees. Single crop planting often leads to increased infestation by disease or insects.
Of, growing in, or inhabiting mountain areas.
The study of the form and structure of an organism.
A small nonflowering plant of the class Musci.
A mature bulb which has produced small offset bulbs.
The cell that gives rise to a particular structure or particular reproductive units.
Actively moving or capable of moving spontaneously.
With variegated coloring.
A viscous, slimy material exuded by certain plants.
The bare level bottoms of bodies of water exposed by a drop in the water level. A mud bar may be exposed in a constant water level by a buildup of sediments.
A prefix meaning many.
Refers to hybrids with more than two generations in their ancestry, e.g., x Potinara (Brassavola x Cattleya x Laelia x Sophronitis).
One in which the carpels of several flowers join in a single fruit, like a fig, Ficus. This differs from an aggregate fruit which derives from the multiple carpels of a single flower, e.g., a raspberry, Rubus.
Bearing more than two septae.
With a rough surface composed of many short, hard points.
Very finely muricate.
Divided into many chambers.
Shaped like a broom.
1. An individual produced with sudden and marked differences from the parent, and with a new genetic pattern. 2. A sport.
The study of mushrooms and other fungi.
A plant in symbiosis with ants.
A cultivar that has been given a recognized horticultural name.
A taproot which is broader than it is long, like a turnip.
A drug used to relieve pain and induce sleep.
1. To cause a plant to become established and grow undisturbed as if native. 2. The establishment of exotic species in the wild that can reproduce without human intervention.
The localized death of living tissue usually caused by a pathogen.
An animal, including insects and bats, that eats nectar.
Any place or organ where nectar is secreted.
Very long, narrow, and pointed at the tip.
Any of several unsegmented, elongated cylindrical worms of the phylum Nematoda. They may be parasitic in animals or plants, or free-living in soil or water. As parasites, they can cause damage to and even kill plants. Others can be benficial.
Refers to retaining juvenile characteristics throughout the life span.
The process of fulfilling a function in an imperfect or young state.
An herbal medicine with a soothing and mildly sedative action.
With a network of veins.
1. Ecological niche--the role of a plant or animal in the environment, its relationship to all the living and nonliving things around it, e.g., a bat is the nighttime hunter of airborne insects. 2. Habitat niche--the specific part or smallest segment of a habitat occupied by an organism, e.g., a pillbug lives under moist rocks or detritus. See also: biotope.
The oxidation, as by bacteria, of ammonium to nitrites and the further oxidation of nitrites to nitrates.
A material such as a commercial fertilizer that contains the essential mineral nitrogen.
The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into an organic form usable by plants and other organisms. This can be through the agency of soil microorganisms, particularly rhizobia living in nodules on the roots of legumes, or by industrial methods.
Active only at night; flowering only at night.
Knotty or knobby.
A name that has long referred to different taxa and should be abandoned.
A name proposed to replace a name which has been rejected.
Literally, "a naked name". Used in nomenclature to refer to the fact that the name was published without a description or diagnosis and is therefore not acceptable under the International Code for botanical Nomenclature.
In nomenclature, it means 'not' as in "Artemisia lanata Willd. non Lam."---when Willdenow in 1823 gave a new plant the same name that Lamarmarck had used in 1783 for a different plant.
A nonprofit group or association organized outside of institutionalized political structures to gain particular social objectives such as environmental protection.
A v-shaped indentation.
Plants which may cause harm to collectors, such as poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; or invasiveexotics or parasites and their host plants which may harm the ecosystem or agriculture of an area. See also: quarantine.
A special body in the nucleus.
Calcareous red seaweed.
On center; refers to the spacing on landscape plans of materials to be planted.
Like cuneate, but with the point of attachment at the broad end.
An upright four-sided usually monolithic pillar that gradually tapers as it rises and terminates in a pyramid, often inscribed with words or designs.
Shaped like a sphere which is depressed at the poles.
Unequal-sided or slanting.
Longer than broad and with nearly parallel sides.
Shallowly triangular with the attachment at the point rather than the middle of the flat side.
Inversely pear-shaped, with the attachment at the narrow end; turbinate.
Not evident; rudimentary.
Blunt or rounded at the end.
Producing an odor, often fragrant.
Of the shops; a plant used in medicine or the arts.
Blowing from the land across the water, usually warmer than an onshore wind, and with lower waves.
Refers to fleshy, oily tissue.
A prefix denoting few, as oligopetalous means with few petals.
The course of development of a single organism.
The organ producing the egg or eggs.
Dull; neither shining nor translucent.
Pollination by natural mechanisms such as insects, wind, etc., as opposed to selective pollination by a plant breeder.
Furnished with a lid.
A many-windowed building used to house potted orange trees during winter.
Circular in outline.
Derived naturally, from living or once-living matter.
A plant that is grown for visual display.
Seed that can be dried to moisture levels between 4 and 6 percent and stored without spoiling.
The diffusion of liquid through a semipermeable membrane (such as a cell wall) until there is an equalconcentration on both sides of the membrane. The process by which water is taken up through the roots of a plant and transported throughout the structure.
Bony and brittle.
A small opening or pore.
The interbreeding of distantly related or unrelated individuals.
1. A cross between relatively unrelated individuals. 2. The offspring of an outcross.
Watering from above, usually with a sprinkler or a hose with a sprinkler attachment.
1. Refers to a stand that contains more trees or other materials than the site can support, causing tall, weak growth and the tendency to blow down. 2. Refers to a range which has more wildlife or domestic stock than the area can support. See also: fully stocked, understocked, carrying capacity.
1. To survive the winter. 2. To keep alive through winter, e.g., bringing a nonhardy plant indoors, wrapping roses or mulching pansies.
Producing female reproductive cells.
Describes a seed having a thick outer layer or pericarp, e.g., the skin on a cherry. The skin (epicarp, ectocarp, or exocarp), flesh (mesocarp or sarcocarp), and stony outer layer of the seed (endocarp) forma pachycarpous covering of the seed proper.
With thick or massive primary construction.
A large area of ice driven closely together.
Clothed with chaff.
The study of plant fossils.
Relates to the study of fossil plants.
Any of various plants of the family Palmae, mostly tropical or subtropical monocotyledonous trees, shrubs, or vines, usually having a simple stem and a terminal crown of large pinnate or fan-shaped leaves.
Those not a part of a main lake, therefore not subject to intensive wave or current effects.
A layer of different soil below the surface, often impervious, which would be called hard pan.
A remedy for all ills or difficulties; cure-all.
Borne in a panicle; resembling a panicle.
Describes a pollen grain having rounded apertures all over the surface.
Spanning tropical regions around the world.
Minute rounded or acute protuberances.
A white crystalline compound used in moth balls and moth crystals and often placed with herbarium specimens to prevent destruction by moth larvae. Large quantities in a closed container may be used to kill insects needed as part of sample.
The process whereby one organism lives on or with another as a parasite.
Soft tissue of cells with unthickened walls.
Cells with broad ends abutting on each other, not dovetailing into each other.
Borne on or pertaining to the wall or inner surface of a capsule.
Refers to the fruiting of plants which have not been pollinated or otherwise fertilized.
Developing without fertilization.
Of secondary rank.
A disease-causing agent, especially a bacterium, fungi, or other microorganism.
The changed color or texture of a surface due to weathering or aging.
Borne on a pedicel.
Borne upon a peduncle.
Securing the ends of canes to the ground so that the plant grows horizontally.
Having the movement of a pendulum.
The water table of a smaller body of groundwater body situated above the general groundwater table.
To live for more than one growing season, but usually with reduced growth or dormancy between growing seasons.
A plant whose life cycle lasts for three or more seasons; Lasting year after year.
Pierced with holes.
The wall of the matured ovary.
Repetition of events at fairly regular intervals.
On or near the margin.
A small flask-shaped structure, containing asci.
A lightweight aggregate made from a volcanic glass that has been expanded by heat to form white, very lightweight kernels useful in opening cavities in soil to allow water and air to reach the roots; often used in potting soil.
Lasting beyond maturity without being shed, as some leaves remaining through winter, etc.
Of or resembling petals.
Having a petiole.
Having a petiolule.
A general name for flowering plants.
The grouping of taxa by apparent similarities rather than evolutionary genetics.
The science of the relations between climate and periodic biological phenomena, e.g., the fruiting of plants or the color change of leaves.
Refers to a plant's adaption to surrounding conditions, which are neither stable nor capable of being inherited (genotypic). Such visible changes occur especially where plants are grown in a wide variety of conditions, but will not carry over to different conditions, e.g., red leaves may occur in hot dry areas, but turn green when grown in normal conditions.
Chemical substances produced by animals that attract and stimulate sexual partners of the same species.
The upper layers of bodies of water into which sunlight penetrates sufficiently to influence the growth of plants and animals. See also: aphotic zone.
The response of an organism of seeking or growing toward light. See also: phototropism.
The duration of an organism's daily exposure to light.
Describes growth affected by exposure to light.
The manufacturing of sugar through the action of sunlight.
The movement of a body toward or away from a light source.
Growth or movement toward or away from a light source.
Tiny life-like structures of some lichens.
The chemistry of plants, plant processes, and plant products.
The evolutionary development of plants.
Having a plant origin, e.g., coal.
The science of plant description.
The study of plants.
An agent-causing disease in plants.
Small, often microscopic, aquatic plants.
Being poisonous to plants.
A mass of masonry used as a support, breakwater, etc.
Deeply cut, all the way to the axis.
Marked with small depressions or pits.
1. Plastic, wood, or metal stakes for gardens to indicate what seeds are planted where until they appear, and for varieties for evaluation. 2. Paper forms to include in drying plant samples, with formal printed forms as permanent labels on herbarium specimens. The minimum information required are the name of the collector, the location collected, the date collected, and hopefully, the correct identification of the specimen.
A structure typically made of two ventilated frames 12 X 18 inches (30 X 45 cm.), within which plants may be arranged between sheets of driers and ventilators, tightly strapped together with press straps, in preparation of being added to a collection or herbarium.
A small plant, usually one produced vegetatively from a parent.
Flattened, rhizine-like structures on the lower surface of some lichens.
Describes a leaf creased along its length.
Able to assume different forms.
Folded into plaits, usually lengthwise.
A device used to turn soil. On large farms several of these are mounted in a diagonal line, and referred to by the number of blades, e.g., a six-bottom plow. For compacted soil, chisels, four feet (1.3 m.) or longer, are used to open greater depth, and are called chisel plows.
A feathery inflorescence.
A hollow upright structure.
Containing two or more embryos.
A plastic which allows the passage of gases but not of moisture.
Having more than two distinct morphological variants.
Having separate petals.
Having members that originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line. See also: monophyletic.
Having leaves or other structures arranged in distinct rows.
A small and relatively deep body of usually fresh water, either standing or as part of a stream. There is little wave action and often a reflective quality.
Plants of a species growing in a given place at a given time. Two similar species may mingle, e.g., Solidago canadensis and Solidago altissima, but the botanical term 'population' would include one species or the other, not both.
The concentration of individuals in relation to the space they occupy; how close individuals occur. See also: abundance, cover.
Pierced with small holes or pores.
Spreading outward and forward.
A cement consisting predominantly of calcium silicates which reacts with water to form a hard mass.
Surface or underground pipes or trenches to remove excess water.
Refers to an organism which is past the age of breeding capacity.
A fork of heavy construction with flat tines, for deep digging as is needed for potato harvesting.
The condition of a houseplant or outdoor container plant which has been left in the same pot or container for too long a period of time and the roots fill every niche of the pot or container. A hook or blade is required to cut through and separate the tangled matted outer roots when removed from the pot and before placing in the new container or the plant may never recover from this disastrous condition.
A log scale measurement of the acidity/alkalinity of a solution with 1 being extremely acidic, 10 being extremely alkaline, and 7 being neutral. Most plants prefer a soil within a certain range of pH.
Moist, usually hot, mass of plant material; wrapped in a cloth and applied to the skin to bring about some desired action, such as bringing a boil to a head.
Unit on a tractor to attach power tools.
Volcanic rock powdered and used in making hydraulic cement.
Appearing as if bitten off.
Refers to a plant or animal which has not yet matured sexually.
The intentional burning of plant material in an area. Sometimes used to consume underbrush and other fuel and thus prevent larger, more destructive fires. Also used to maintain a stable prairie or grasslandby aborting the process of succession to shrubs and trees.
Bands or ropes to hold the plant press tightly together, traditionally made of web and buckles, but now often with Velcro.
A small, sharp outgrowth involving only the outer epidermal layer, usually more slender than a thorn. This is the correct term for rose thorns.
A tract of trees with minimal impact from humans.
The floricane, but in the first year of growth before it is capable of flowering.
The area of deep water at the bottom of a lake below effective penetration of light. See also: abyssal.
Standing out from the surface, clearly visible and touchable, as are veins and other surface features.
Slightly raised above the adjoining tissue.
Cells with pointed ends dovetailing into each other.
Lying flat upon the ground.
A legally restricted land or water area under public or private ownership, which has managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.
Of, relating to, resembling, or being protein.
Refers to all parts of botanical publication, including, but not limited to, diagnosis, description, synonymy, citation of specimens, illustrations, etc., expressed as data, information, and knowledge.
The living contents of a cell.
Toward the base.
Having the surface obscured by a rather thick, bluish or grayish, wax-like coating.
To cut back, for the purposes of shaping a plant, encouraging new growth, or controlling size.
Specialized scissors to cut plants back.
A fruit, such as the strawberry or pear, that develops not only from the ripened ovary, or ovaries, but from nonovarian tissue as well.
1. Describes a bud which is situated at what appears to be the apex of a branch, but is in fact located in an axillary position beside a leaf scar. 2. Refers to a bud which replaces an injured terminal bud which has died.
The study of ferns.
A covering of soft, short hairs.
1. A very small pool of water, often transitory, appearing during heavy rain and disappearing shortly afterward. 2. To knead or work soil while wet, making it impervious to water. 3. To work while wet, as in flooded rice fields.
Like a cushion.
Terminating in a rigid sharp point; acrid to smell or taste.
Medicines which empty the intestines.
Like a blister.
Covered with blisters.
A surface eruption such as a pimple or blister.
A plastic pipe used for moving water that acts as a conduit.
The pyrethrins are a class of organic compounds normally derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium that have potent insecticidal activity by targeting the nervous systems of insects. Pyrethrin is synthetically made by industrial methods, but it also naturally occurs in chrysanthemum flowers, thus is often considered an organic insecticide.
Describes cells that are square or nearly so.
Divided into four parts.
With four sides.
Four times pinnate.
A legal ban on the export or import of certain noxious weeds or insects that may be attached to the plants.
Having five leaflets growing from the same point of attachment.
Resembling a raceme.
In flowers, one with the symmetry of a symmetry wheel.
1. The outermost flowers in a daisy-like head, Compositae; ray flowers as opposed to disc flowers. 2. The distance from the center of a circle to the outer edge, as from the heart of a tree to the bark.
A fiber-like material used for tying grafts and other horticultural purposes.
An old beach terrace at an elevation above the present shoreline, representing a formerly higher lake level.
A bed or garden created by adding soil on top of that which is already present. This is usually done in cases where the underlying soil is particularly poor in nutrients or has inadequate drainage. Wooden or stone walls are often used to keep the added soil in place.
To grow freely, often over another plant or structure.
Belonging to a branch.
With branches; branch-like.
Having many branches.
1. In the united States and Canada, a farm that raises livestock, fruits, and vegetables for use of the family, or crops for feeding animals; sometimes used as a secondary income, e.g., a cattle ranch. 2. The buildings occupied or the persons on the estate (ranchers).
1. A vertical row, as of leaves. When you sight along the length of a branch from the tip end, if it appears there are two rows of leaves, either opposite or alternate, the branch is 2-ranked; if three rows, it is 3-ranked, etc. 2. In taxonomy, the position of a taxon in the hierarchy, e.g., species, genus, family, etc.
One which uses mechanical means to multiply cutting or turning power, reducing cramping of hands and forearms.
A depression worn by running water, larger than a gully and smaller than a valley.
One of the broad, conspicuously colored florets of a compound flower, the structure of which suggests a single petal of an ordinary flower. These form the radiating border in the open-centered type dahlias, or massed together, the flower head in fully double types. See also: disc floret.
Seed that does not survive drying and freezing.
1. The more or less expanded or produced portion of an axis which bears the organs of a flower (the torus) or the collected flowers of a head, and in roses, enfolds the developing ovaries to form a hip. 2. Any similar structure in cryptogams.
Carried on the receptacle; pertaining to the receptacle.
A drop in the water line of a body of water, with a corresponding exposure of the bottom.
Bent or turned downward.
The lower portion somewhat flattened along the ground but the upper parts curving upward.
Abruptly bent or turned downward.
Herbal preparations which cool the body.
Uniform in shape or structure.
The difference in elevation between the highest point and the lowest point of land in a specified region.
Able to rebloom one or more times during a single growing season.
Distant, at the farthest end.
A substance used to keep insects or animals from an area.
A plant secretion, often aromatic, that is insoluble in water but soluble in ether or alcohol.
Tiny circular or globular yellow spots, usually not obvious except under magnification.
Turned upside down.
In the form of network; netveined.
A mesh-like network.
The structure by which another structure is attached to a plant.
Directed back or downward.
Soaking plant tissue so as to induce bacterial growth that will aid in the separating of the fibers.
Having or appearing to have rhizomes.
Geologic ridges running parallel, as often occurs along a mountain side.
Of, or relating to, rivers or streams.
Refers to a river.
The place where a river empties into another body of water.
A garden laid out among rocks and adapted for the growth of particular kinds of plants, such as alpines.
Curled under; revolute.
The underground part of a plant that serves to anchor it and supplies it with nourishment.
A cutting taken from the root of a parent plant for the purpose of propagation.
A disease of the roots characterized by a swelling and caused by nematodes.
1. Pruning to stimulate the growth of new roots within a parameter in preparation for transplanting. 2. Trimming and/or scoring the outer layer of roots of a plant that has become root bound. 3. The act of removing a portion of a plant's roots to keep top growth in check.
The area immediately surrounding the roots and from which a plant takes moisture and nourishment.
The root stock and surrounding soil together; in nurseries and during transport, these are held together by burlap or other wrapping.
The condition of a houseplant or outdoor container plant which has outgrown its container, with the roots filling every niche of the container. Eventually, the roots will themselves strangle the plant by constricting the flow of nutrients. A hook or blade is required to cut through and separate the tangled matted outer roots when removed from the pot and before placing in the new container.
A small, secondary root.
Having a short beak.
Any of various diseases causing the breakdown and rotting of tissue.
Describes a corolla that is wheel-shaped flat and circular in outline.
Growing in poor land or waste places.
Covered with minute wrinkles.
To build or face with usually rough-surfaced masonry.
Having a slender tube which expands abruptly.
A temporary ridge of sand formed by currents in a body of water.
A glycoside compound of plants which has a foaming or soap-like action.
With long slender stolons.
Growing among or upon rocks.
Rough to the touch.
Having a ladder-like pattern.
Having tiny scales attached at only one end.
Climbing, but not self-supporting.
Bearing or resembling a scape.
Scarious, having thin, dry, shriveled tissues.
Thin, dry, and membranaceous, not green.
The name applied to a plant, animal, or other organism, according to the Codes of Nomenclature. Although in some cases a scientific name is changed; it is almost always a much more reliable manner of identifying a plant than the often variable common name. See also: binomial.
Tissue composed of cells with thickened and hardened walls.
Having leaves stiffened by sclerenchyma.
Shaped like a small shield.
Ocean water with a high salt content.
Hand-held pruning shears.
Twisted or turned to one side.
Medicines which can slow certain bodily functions and promote sleep.
The outer protective covering of a seed.
1. A shallow trench in which to sow seeds. 2. An implement for planting seeds.
Seeds of a particular crop gathered at one time and likely to have similar germination rates and other characteristics.
A young plant grown from a seed.
A rapid and sometimes violent fluctuation in water level within a landlocked body of water, usually due to sudden changes in barometric pressure, the ripples lasting from minutes to several hours. See also: tsunami.
Having a single pure color with no markings.
Produces offspring from seed without intervention.
Produces offspring from seed without intervention.
Prefix meaning half or partly.
Retaining at least some green foliage well into winter, or shedding leaves only in cold climates.
Questionably hardy in a given temperature zone; susceptible to damage by extreme cold or heat.
Saucer-shaped, almost flat.
Dying of tissues following maturity.
Meaning "in the sense of" in taxonomy.
Refers to sepals.
Like a sepal.
A small dent or cavity.
Divided by partitions.
Any kind of partition.
The complete cycle of changes from the original state to the climax condition, e.g., oak-maple forest, forest destroyed by fire, meadow, brushland, young mixed conifer-deciduous forest, oak-maple forest.
In a whorl or row, generally preceded by a number or numerical prefix, as triseriate meaning in three rows.
A group of similar, but not identical, plants.
Appearing in the autumn or late summer.
Having sharp teeth pointing forward.
Without footstalk of any kind.
1. The development of fruit, and or seed, following pollination; to set seed. 2. To transplant as seedlings. 3. To apply as a graft. 4. A young bulb, tuber, or other type of vegetative propagule ready for planting. 5. Transformation of cement paste or concrete from a fluid-like consistency to a stiff mass.
Beset with bristles.
Having minute bristles.
An instrument used mostly at sea, where there are no bench marks, to determine location by latitude and longitude.
Light diminished by some blocking feature. See also: light shade.
A larger tree planted in a location where the canopy provides shade at ground level.
Enclosing as by a sheath.
Describes a plant, usually perennial, where the individuals live for only a few seasons.
1. A long-handled scoop-like implement used for digging, lifting, and throwing, etc. 2. The quantity contained in one scoop.
Herbal medicines that can increase the flow of saliva.
1. A short-handled hand tool similar to a scythe but smaller and curved into a semicircle, used to cut heavier crops like corn, Zea mays.
A mechanical cutting tool that fastens onto a tractor's power source.
Curved like the letter S.
A short silique, no more than twice as long as it is broad.
A dry, dehiscent, elongated fruit formed from a superior ovary of two carpels, with two parietalplacentas and divided into two loculi by a false septum between the placentas, occurring in plants of the family Cruciferae.
Fine-grained sediment usually 1/20 millimeter or less in diameter, finer than sand particles and coarser then those composing clay.
Of one piece; not compound.
A leaf with an undivided blade.
Wavy like the path of a snake.
A trained firefighter who is dropped from an airplane in the path of a wildfire to attempt to control the blaze.
Without roughness or pubescence.
1. Part of the rootstock left during a graft to hold the scion in place. 2. Removal of the projection when the scion no longer needs it. 3. A rough projection on a woody plant which needs to be removed.
The handle of a scythe.
Wooden or plastic lath joined by wire into long rolls, then erected 100 feet (33 m.) or so on the windward side of a road or barnyard. The lath breaks the velocity of the wind allowing snow particles to drop before reaching the road. It may also be used as a shade cover for plants.
A shoot, especially from the ground.
The control of behavior of those animals lower in the hierarchy, by aggression, intelligence, or other factors of the alpha animals.
The effect of the closeness of one organism upon the conduct of another one.
Of, relating to, or containing sodium.
The conversion of a soluble substance such as phosphorus from the exchangeable form useful to plants, to a relatively insoluble form.
Borne singly or alone; not in clusters.
Latin term for a solution.
Belonging to the vegetative part of a plant as opposed to the reproductive.
A clump of soredia.
Measured distance between the center of one plant and the center of the next closest ones.
Rush-like, but sharp and rigid.
Describes an herbal preparation that can ease cramps or spasms.
Resembling or having a spathe.
A small or secondary spathe.
Shaped like a spathe.
Gradually narrowing downward from a rounded summit; spoon-shaped.
A fundamental category of taxonomic classification that ranks below a genus and above subspecies; a population or series of populations whose individuals have the potential to freely breed with one another and that is discontinuous in variation from other populations or series of populations. The plural abreviation "spp." is usually used to refer to all the individual species within a genus, e.g., Cornusspp. refers to all the plants within the dogwood genus.
Almost the same as species richness, but in more technical literature, an ecosystem that is said to be more diverse if the species present have equal population sizes and less diverse if many species are rare and some are very common.
The number of species within a region. See also: species diversity.